In alphabetical order


Rokeach (1968) defines a value as ‘an enduring belief that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence’… instrumental values (such as honesty, responsibility, and courage) and terminal values (such as freedom, equality, and inner harmony’ (Beatley, 1994, p. 18).


Vanishing point

‘In a linear perspective drawing, the vanishing point is the spot on the horizon line to which the receding parallel lines diminish. It is what allows us to create drawings, paintings, and photographs that have a three-dimensional perception. The easiest way to illustrate this in real life is to stand in the middle of a straight road. When you do this, you'll notice how the sides of the road and the lines painted on it meet in one spot on the horizon. The center line will go straight for it, and the lines on the side will angle in until all of them intersect. That point of intersection is the vanishing point’ (South, 2019, para.1-2).


Vehicle Miles or Kilometers Traveled (VMT or VKT)

‘One vehicle traveling the distance of one mile or one kilometer.  Thus, total vehicle miles or kilometers is the total mileage traveled by all vehicles.’ Therefore, the measurement is used for assessing road traffic fatalities. (UNFCCC, n.d.)


‘A picture of the “preferred future”; a statement that describes how the future will look if the organization fulfills its mission’ (Wilkinson, 2013, table 2).

Reference List

Beatley, T. (1994), Ethical Land Use: Principles of Policy and Planning, Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Rokeach, M. (1968). A theory of organization and change within value-attitude systems. Journal of Social Issues, Vol.XXIV, No.1, Jan. 1968, pp.13-33.

South, H. (2019). What Is a Vanishing Point in Art? Retrieved from

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. (n.d.). Glossary. Retrieved from

Wilkinson, M. (2013). There’s a difference: Mission v. vision. Retrieved from