In alphabetical order


Walking cities

Cities that encouraging walkability ‘marked by highly compact cities and towns; an intermingling of residences and workplaces; a short journey to work for those employed in a variety of tasks; mixed patterns of land use; and the location of elite residences at the city centers.’ (Automobile in American life and Society, 2010)


Wicked problem
‘In 1973, design theorists Horst Rittel and Melvin Webber introduced the term "wicked problem" in order to draw attention to the complexities and challenges of addressing planning and social policy problems. Unlike the “tame” problems of mathematics and chess, the wicked problems of planning lack clarity in both their aims and solutions. In addition to these challenges of articulation and internal logic, they are subject to real-world constraints that prevent multiple and risk-free attempts at solving’ (Stony Brook University, 2020, para.1).


Willingness to pay (WTP)

‘The maximum amount that an economic agent is willing to pay to acquire a specified good or service. The willingness to pay is private information but may be obtained by using revealed preference techniques or the contingent valuation method.’ (Black, Hashimzade & Myles, 2012)


World Cities

World cities ‘function as the economic, geopolitical, and ideological-symbolical powerhouses of the capitalist world-system’ (Derudder, 2009, p.262).


World City Ranking
A ranking of world cities which are ‘the command and control centers of the global economy, they are nodal points that function as organizing centers for the interdependent skein of material, financial, and cultural flows that together sustain contemporary globalization’ (Derudder, 2009, p.262).

Reference List

Automobile in American life and Society. (2010). The Automobile Shapes The City: From“Walking Cities”to“Automobile Cities”. Retrieved from

Black, J., Hashimzade, N., & Myles, G. (2012). Willingness to pay. A Dictionary of Economics. Retrieved from

Derudder, B. (2009). World/Global Cities. International Encyclopedia of Human Geography, p.262-268.

Stony Brook University. (2020). What’s a wicked problem? Retrieved from