In alphabetical order


Ebenezer Howard

‘Ebenezer Howard (1850-1928) is known for his publication Garden Cities of To-morrow (1898), the description of a utopian city in which man [sic] lives harmoniously together with the rest of nature and with one another through urban design and co-ownership of land. The publication led to the founding of the Garden city movement, that realized several Garden Cities in Great Britain at the beginning of the Twentieth Century’ (Planetizen, 2019).


Ecological democracy
Ecological democracy is defined as ‘an alternative democratic model that 1) strives to incorporate interested citizens into environmental decision-making, and 2) lacks structural features that systematically concentrate environmental amenities into the hands of particular social groups, while imposing environmental and ecological degradation on others’ (Mitchell, 2006, p.459).


Ecological footprint
‘A measure of how much biologically productive land and water area an individual, a city, a country, a region, or humanity requires to produce the resources it consumes and to absorb the waste it generates, using prevailing technology and resource management schemes’ (Holden, 2012, p.6).


Ecological revitalization
‘Ecological revitalization refers to the process of returning land from a contaminated state to one that supports a functioning and sustainable habitat.’ (Environmental Protection Agency, the United States, 2009, p. ES-1).


‘Ecology is the study of the distribution and abundance of organisms, the interaction between organisms, the interaction between organisms and their environment, and structure and function of ecosystems’ (British Ecological Society, n.d.).


(Economic) base multiplier

‘Ratio of the total number of jobs created to the number of basic jobs created. A higher economic base multiplier implies a larger effect of the basic job creator on the total number of jobs’ (Business Dictionary).


Economic growth

‘Economic growth is an increase in the production of economic goods and services, compared from one period of time to another. It can be measured in nominal or real (adjusted for inflation) terms. Traditionally, aggregate economic growth is measured in terms of gross national product (GNP) or gross domestic product (GDP), although alternative metrics are sometimes used’ (Investopedia, 2019a).


Economic space
1. ‘Ubiquitous global space of market relations’ (Friedmann, 2002). 2. ‘The commodification of place, where place is understood to be socially and economically valued land’ (Rodgers, 2009, p.40).


Ecosystem services
‘Ecosystems are communities formed by the interaction between living (plants, animals, microbes) and non-living organisms (air, water, mineral soil). Human beings are both part of ecosystems and benefit from ecosystems in many ways. The benefits are known as ecosystem services’ (Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems, CGIAR, 2014).


Edge cities

The recent suburban development that emphasises producing office and retail space. (O'Sullivan, 2012, p.166-167)



‘The notion of creating images of the future to serve as goals or guides for planning decisions’ (Shipley, 2002) and ‘a clear guidance that sets the context for development based upon a clear vision of the future’ (Roberts, 1996, cited in Shipley, 2002).


Excess commuting

‘Excess commuting is the additional journey‐to‐work travel represented by the difference between the actual average commute and the smallest possible average commute, given the spatial configuration of workplace and residential sites.’ (Ma & Banister, 2006, p.749)


Exchange value
‘Individuals or groups seeking exchange value hope to generate some form of rent from real estate’ (Rodgers, 2009, p.41).

Reference List

British Ecological Society. (n.d.). ‘What is ecology?’. Retrieved from

Business Dictionary. Economic Base Multiplier. Retrieved from

Environmental Protection Agency, the United States. (2009). Executive Summary. Ecological Revitalization: Turning Contaminated Properties into Community Assets. ES-1-ES-2. Retrieved from

Friedmann, J. (2002). Life Space and Economic Space: Third World Planning in Perspective [Book cover]. Transaction Publishers, USA.

Holden, E. (2012). Ecological Footprint. In International Encyclopedia of Housing and Home, 6-11. Retrieved from

Investopedia. (2019a). Economic Growth. Retrieved from

Ma, K.R. & Banister, D. (2006). Excess Commuting: A Critical Review. Transport Reviews, 26:6, p.749-767.

Mitchell, R. (2006). Green politics or environmental blues? Analyzing ecological democracy. Public Understanding of Science, 15(4), 459-480. Retrieved from

O’Sullivan, A. (2012). Urban economics (8th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

Planetizen. (2019). Ebenezer Howard. Retrieved from

Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems, CGIAR. (2014). ‘What are ecosystem services?’. Ecosystem services and resilience framework. Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI). Retrieved from

Roberts, P (1996). European Spatial Planning and the Environment: Planning for Sustainable Development. Environmental Policy and Governance, 6(3), pp. 77-84.

Rodgers, S. (2009). Urban Growth Machine. International Encyclopedia of Human Geography, p.40-45.

Shipley, R. (2002). Visioning in Planning: Is the Practice Based on Sound Theory? Environment and Planning A, 34(1), pp.7-22.