by topics

Topic: Sustainable urban transport


Automobile cities

The automobile in the cities facilitated the uninhibited outward expansion of the city due that people and business were no longer constrained to the fixed-tract public transport systems or walking-scale environment. The automobile cities are feature with low density, separated uses, arterial grid and decentralized urban form (Schiller et al., 2010, p. 27-28)


Bus Rapid Transit (BRT)

'Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) is a high-quality bus-based transit system that delivers fast, comfortable, and cost-effective services at metro-level capacities. It does this through the provision of dedicated lanes, with busways and iconic stations typically aligned to the center of the road, off-board fare collection, and fast and frequent operations. ' (Institute for Transportation & Development Policy, 2019a)



‘Traffic congestion results when there are too many vehicles for the available road space. It may occur on almost any road system but, in general, it Is likely to be experienced with great severity in and around the major employment nodes such" the central business district during the morning and afternoon peek.’ (Robinson, 1980, p.1)


Congestion pricing

‘Congestion pricing - sometimes called value pricing - is a way of harnessing the power of the market to reduce the waste associated with traffic congestion. Congestion pricing works by shifting purely discretionary rush hour highway travel to other transportation modes or to off-peak periods, taking advantage of the fact that the majority of rush hour drivers on a typical urban highway are not commuters. By removing a fraction (even as small as 5%) of the vehicles from a congested roadway, pricing enables the system to flow much more efficiently, allowing more cars to move through the same physical space. Similar variable charges have been successfully utilized in other industries - for example, airline tickets, cell phone rates, and electricity rates. There is a consensus among economists that congestion pricing represents the single most viable and sustainable approach to reducing traffic congestion.’ (U.S. Department of Transportation, 2019)


Excess commuting

‘Excess commuting is the additional journey‐to‐work travel represented by the difference between the actual average commute and the smallest possible average commute, given the spatial configuration of workplace and residential sites.’ (Ma & Banister, 2006, p.749)



‘Infrastructure is the term for the basic physical systems of a business or nation — transportation, communication, sewage, water and electric systems are all examples of infrastructure. These systems tend to be high-cost investments and are vital to a country's economic development and prosperity. Projects related to infrastructure improvements may be funded publicly, privately or through public-private partnerships.’ (Chappelow, 2019)


Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS)

Hardware and software specifically designed for improving transportation operations, information to the public and service planning (Schiller et al., 2010, p.327).



The travel involving connections between modes (Schiller et al., 2010, p.327).


Mobility as a Service (MaaS)

‘Mobility as a Service (MaaS) is the integration of various forms of transport services into a single mobility service accessible on demand. To meet a customer’s request, a MaaS operator facilitates a diverse menu of transport options, be they public transport, ride-, car- or bike-sharing, taxi or car rental/lease, or a combination thereof. For the user, MaaS can offer added value through use of a single application to provide access to mobility, with a single payment channel instead of multiple ticketing and payment operations. For its users, MaaS should be the best value proposition, by helping them meet their mobility needs and solve the inconvenient parts of individual journeys as well as the entire system of mobility services. A successful MaaS service also brings new business models and ways to organise and operate the various transport options, with advantages for transport operators including access to improved user and demand information and new opportunities to serve unmet demand. The aim of MaaS is to provide an alternative to the use of the private car that may be as convenient, more sustainable, help to reduce congestion and constraints in transport capacity, and can be even cheaper.’ (MaaS Alliance, n.d.)


Model split

‘Modal Split, also called mode share or mode split, is the percentage of travellers using a particular type of transportation or number of trips using said type. In freight transportation, this may be measured in mass. Modal spilt is the third stage of the travel demand modelling.’ (MBASkool, 2019a)


Right of Way (RoW)

‘ROW – Right-of-Way is a type of easement granted or reserved over the land for transportation purposes, this can be for a bikeway, highway, public footpath, rail transport, canal, as well as electrical transmission lines, oil and gas pipelines. (City of SeaTac, n.d.)


Roadway Congestion Index (RCI)

‘The Roadway Congestion Index (RCI) is a measure of vehicle travel density on major roadways in an urban area. An RCI exceeding 1.0 indicates an undesirable congestion level, on an average, on the freeways and principal arterial street systems during the peak period.’ (Bureau of Transportation Statistics, 2013)


Route assignment

Trip assignment, traffic assignment or route choice concerns the selection of routes (alternative called paths) between origins and destinations in transportation networks. It is the fourth step in the conventional transportation planning model (Ahmed, 2012)


Traffic calming

‘Developed in Europe, traffic calming (a direct translation of the German "vekehrsberuhigung") is a system of design and management strategies that aim to balance traffic on streets with other uses. It is founded on the idea that streets should help create and preserve a sense of place, that their purpose is for people to walk, stroll, look, gaze, meet, play, shop and even work alongside cars - but not dominated by them. The tools of traffic calming take a different approach from treating the street only as a conduit for vehicles passing through at the greatest possible speed. They include techniques designed to lessen the impact of motor vehicle traffic by slowing it down, or literally "calming" it. This helps build human-scale places and an environment friendly to people on foot.’ (Project for Public Spaces, 2008)


Transit Adjacent Development

‘In recent years, transit-adjacent development (TAD) emerged as a spectrum of transit-oriented development (TOD). TAD is described as the land adjacent to the transit stop, however, it fails to capitalize on encouraging compact mixed-use development, lacking land-use composition, in particular station access or site design.’ (SCHOBYJ, 2012)


Transit-oriented Development

‘TOD, or transit-oriented development, means integrated urban places designed to bring people, activities, buildings, and public space together, with easy walking and cycling connection between them and near-excellent transit service to the rest of the city. It means inclusive access for all to local and citywide opportunities and resources by the most efficient and healthful combination of mobility modes, at the lowest financial and environmental cost, and with the highest resilience to disruptive events. Inclusive TOD is a necessary foundation for long-term sustainability, equity, shared prosperity, and civil peace in cities.’ (Institute for Transportation & Development Policy, 2019b)


Transport mode

‘It refers to the different ways in which people, goods and information can be moved from one place to another. It includes land, water and air transportation. The various kind of transportation modes are rail, road, ship and aviation. But other transportation media also exist i.e. pipelines, optical fiber, cable etc. Each transportation mode has its own characteristics, benefits, technical requirements and risks involved. The choice of transportation system depends upon need of customer. Often inter-modal transportation is used in order to reach to the customer.’ (MBASkool, 2019b)


Trip generation

‘A trip is usually defined in transport modeling as a single journey made by an individual between two points by a specified mode of travel and for a defined purpose. Trips are often considered as productions of a particular land-use and attracted to other specified land-uses. The number of trips arises in unit time, usually for a specified zonal land use, is called the trip generation rate’ (Planning Tank, 2019).


Vehicle Miles or Kilometers Traveled (VMT or VKT)

‘One vehicle traveling the distance of one mile or one kilometer.  Thus, total vehicle miles or kilometers is the total mileage traveled by all vehicles.’ Therefore, the measurement is used for assessing road traffic fatalities. (UNFCCC, n.d.)


Walking cities

Cities that encouraging walkability ‘marked by highly compact cities and towns; an intermingling of residences and workplaces; a short journey to work for those employed in a variety of tasks; mixed patterns of land use; and the location of elite residences at the city centers.’ (Automobile in American life and Society, 2010)

Reference List

Ahmed, B. (2012). The Traditional Four Step Transportation Modeling Using Simplified Transport Network: A Case Study of Dhaka City, Bangladesh.  International Journal of Advanced Scientific Engineering and Technological Research, 1 (1) pp. 19-40.

Automobile in American life and Society. (2010). The Automobile Shapes The City: From“Walking Cities”to“Automobile Cities”. Retrieved from

Bureau of Transportation Statistics. (2013). Annual Roadway Congestion Index. Retrieved from

Chappelow, J. (2019). Infrastructure. In Investopedia.

City of SeaTac. (n.d.). Definitions. Retrieved from

Institute for Transportation & Development Policy. (2019a). What is BRT? Retrieved from

Institute for Transportation & Development Policy. (2019b). What is TOD? Retrieved from

MBASkool. (2019a). Modal Split. Retrieved from

Ma, K.R. & Banister, D. (2006). Excess Commuting: A Critical Review. Transport Reviews, 26:6, p.749-767.

MaaS Alliance. (n.d.). What is MaaS? Retrieved from

Planning Tank (2019). Trip Generation. Retrieved from

Project for Public Spaces. (2008). Traffic Calming 101. Retrieved from

Robinson, R. (1980). Problems in the urban environment: traffic congestion and its effects. Retrieved from

SCHOBYJ. (2012, December 2). Transit Adjacent Development [Web log post]. Retrieved from

Schiller, P. L. Bruun, E. C. and Kenworthy, J. R. An Introduction to Sustainable Transportation: Policy, Planning and Implementation. London: Routledge, 2010

U.S. Department of Transportation. (2019). What is Congestion Pricing? Retrieved from

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. (n.d.). Glossary. Retrieved from