In alphabetical order


Ideological advocacy
When an advocate planner ‘represents his or her own point of view rather than that of a client’ (Davidoff, Davidoff & Cold, 1970, as cited in Peattie, 1994, p.152).


Index of dissimilarity

A demographic measure of the degree of segregation or diversity within each of a set of areas. The measure is higher if the areas have ethnic segregation, and the index declines if people of type I move to an area with lower concentration of their ethnicity. (Elliot, Fairweather, Olsen & Pampaka, 2016)


Industrial revolution

‘The transition from an agrarian economy to an economy based on the use of coal-fired machinery to manufacture an increasingly wide range of goods. The process began in Britain in the 18th century after the invention of the steam engine’. Since then, it has spread all over the world (Porta & Last, 2018).


‘Inequity refers to unfair, avoidable differences arising from poor governance, corruption or cultural exclusion’ (Global Health Europe, 2009, para.1).



‘Inflation is a quantitative measure of the rate at which the average price level of a basket of selected goods and services in an economy increases over a period of time. It is the constant rise in the general level of prices where a unit of currency buys less than it did in prior periods. Often expressed as a percentage, inflation indicates a decrease in the purchasing power of a nation’s currency.’ (Chen, 2019)



Informality refers to ‘the collection of firms, workers, and activities that operate outside the legal and regulatory frameworks or outside the modern economy’ (Loayza, 2016, p.2).



‘Infrastructure is the term for the basic physical systems of a business or nation — transportation, communication, sewage, water and electric systems are all examples of infrastructure. These systems tend to be high-cost investments and are vital to a country's economic development and prosperity. Projects related to infrastructure improvements may be funded publicly, privately or through public-private partnerships.’ (Chappelow, 2019)


Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS)

Hardware and software specifically designed for improving transportation operations, information to the public and service planning (Schiller et al., 2010, p.327).


Interculturalism ‘offers the only effective framework for diversity in an increasingly globalised world... Interculturalism also tries to avoid the charge of assimilation, but recognises that heritage and identity are dynamic and that cross-cultural interaction in increasingly globalised and diverse societies is inevitable and desirable. Interculturalism suggests that such change has to be facilitated and supported, and that identity has to be seen as chosen and developmental’ (Cantle, 2012, p.38).



The travel involving connections between modes (Schiller et al., 2010, p.327).

Reference List

Cantle, T. (2012). Interculturalism: For the Era of Globalization, Cohesion and Diversity. Political Insight, 3(3), pp.38-41. Retrieved from

Chappelow, J. (2019). Infrastructure. In Investopedia.

Chen, J. (2019). Inflation. In Investopedia. Retrieved from

Davidoff, L., Davidoff, P. and Cold, N.N. (1970). Suburban action: advocate planning for an open society. Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 36(1), pp.12-21. Retrieved from

Elliot, M., Fairweather, I., Olsen, W., & Pampaka, M. (2016). index of dissimilarity. In A Dictionary of Social Research Methods.: Oxford University Press.

Global Health Europe (2009). Inequity and inequality in health. Retrieved from

Loayza, Norman V. (2016). Informality in the Process of Development and Growth [Electronic notes]. Development Research, the World Bank. Retrieved from

Peattie, L. R. (1994). Communities and interests in advocacy planning. Journal of American Planning Association, 60(2), 151-153. Retrieved from

Porta, M., & Last, J. (2018). Industrial Revolution. A Dictionary of Public Health, Oxford University Press: Oxford and New York. Retrieved from

Schiller, P. L. Bruun, E. C. and Kenworthy, J. R. An Introduction to Sustainable Transportation: Policy, Planning and Implementation. London: Routledge, 2010