Index of dissimilarity
A demographic measure of the degree of segregation or diversity within each of a set of areas. The measure is higher if the areas have ethnic segregation, and the index declines if people of type I move to an area with lower concentration of their ethnicity. (Elliot, Fairweather, Olsen & Pampaka, 2016)
‘The transition from an agrarian economy to an economy based on the use of coal-fired machinery to manufacture an increasingly wide range of goods. The process began in Britain in the 18th century after the invention of the steam engine’. Since then, it has spread all over the world (Porta & Last, 2018).
‘Inflation is a quantitative measure of the rate at which the average price level of a basket of selected goods and services in an economy increases over a period of time. It is the constant rise in the general level of prices where a unit of currency buys less than it did in prior periods. Often expressed as a percentage, inflation indicates a decrease in the purchasing power of a nation’s currency.’ (Chen, 2019)
Informality refers to ‘the collection of firms, workers, and activities that operate outside the legal and regulatory frameworks or outside the modern economy’ (Loayza, 2016, p.2).
‘Infrastructure is the term for the basic physical systems of a business or nation — transportation, communication, sewage, water and electric systems are all examples of infrastructure. These systems tend to be high-cost investments and are vital to a country's economic development and prosperity. Projects related to infrastructure improvements may be funded publicly, privately or through public-private partnerships.’ (Chappelow, 2019)
Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS)
Hardware and software specifically designed for improving transportation operations, information to the public and service planning (Schiller et al., 2010, p.327).
The travel involving connections between modes (Schiller et al., 2010, p.327).
Cantle, T. (2012). Interculturalism: For the Era of Globalization, Cohesion and Diversity. Political Insight, 3(3), pp.38-41. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2041-9066.2012.00124.x.
Chappelow, J. (2019). Infrastructure. In Investopedia.
Chen, J. (2019). Inflation. In Investopedia. Retrieved from https://www.investopedia.com/terms/i/inflation.asp
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Elliot, M., Fairweather, I., Olsen, W., & Pampaka, M. (2016). index of dissimilarity. In A Dictionary of Social Research Methods.: Oxford University Press.
Global Health Europe (2009). Inequity and inequality in health. Retrieved from http://www.globalhealtheurope.org/index.php/resources/glossary/values/179-inequity-and-inequality-in-health.html.
Loayza, Norman V. (2016). Informality in the Process of Development and Growth [Electronic notes]. Development Research, the World Bank. Retrieved from http://pubdocs.worldbank.org/en/303301465334000439/Informality-Development-and-Growth.pdf
Peattie, L. R. (1994). Communities and interests in advocacy planning. Journal of American Planning Association, 60(2), 151-153. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1080/01944369408975566.
Porta, M., & Last, J. (2018). Industrial Revolution. A Dictionary of Public Health, Oxford University Press: Oxford and New York. Retrieved from https://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780191844386.001.0001/acref-9780191844386-e-2245?rskey=3jeB1Q&result=2424
Schiller, P. L. Bruun, E. C. and Kenworthy, J. R. An Introduction to Sustainable Transportation: Policy, Planning and Implementation. London: Routledge, 2010