‘The Central Provident Fund (CPF) is a comprehensive social security system that enables working Singapore Citizens and Permanent Residents to set aside funds for retirement. It also addresses healthcare, home ownership, family protection and asset enhancement.’ The savings plan for working Singaporeans and permanent residents primarily to fund their retirement, healthcare, and housing needs. The CPF is an employment based savings scheme with employers and employees contributing a mandated amount to the Fund. (Central Provident Fund Board, 2019)
Circuits of capital
‘A process which provides private individuals an opportunity to influence public decisions and has long been a component of the democratic decision-making process’ (Parker, 2002).
City Beautiful Movement
‘The City Beautiful Movement was inspired by the 1893 World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago, with the message that cities should aspire to aesthetic value for their residents’ (The New York Preservation Archive Project, 2016).
‘Climate change is the long-term alteration of temperature and normal weather patterns in a place. This could refer to a particular location or the planet as a whole’ (National Geographic Society, 2019). Increasingly, people use the term ‘climate crisis’ to reflect the exigency of the climate conditions.
‘Work constructed of assemblages of disparate fragments, e.g. a picture made from scraps of paper, newspaper cuttings, and oddments pasted onto a backing’ (Curl & Wilson, 2015, p.67).
Colonialism is a system of domination whereby an external, sovereign country willfully and forcefully occupies another, independent country/territory in order to exploit the latter’s human and natural resources. In the process, the colonizing country imposes its system of governance, laws, culture, religion, language, education, and economics on its colonial objects (Sackey, 2012).
‘Common pool resources (CPRs) or commons, which are non-excludable but subject to rivalry, such as fisheries, free meadows, hunting game, and groundwater basins.’ ... ‘For goods with the rivalry attribute, a unit of CPR taken by one person is taken away from another person. For goods with the non-excludability attribute, no one can singularly claim property rights.’ (Martelli, 2011)
‘Cities of a form and scale appropriate to walking, cycling and efficient public transport, and with a compactness that encourages social interaction’ (Jenks, Burton & Williams, 1996, p.3).
A region may be producing a particular product with a lower opportunity cost. This may lead to specialization and trade. (O'Sullivan, 2012, p.18-19)
The systematic study of interlinkages, similarities and differences between cities and urban processes (Mayhew, 2015a).
In architecture, conceptual diagram is an ‘abstract representa;on’ to ‘represent a conceptualiza;on of a poten;al problem solu;on’ ... ‘Conceptual diagrams are concise, yet powerful aids in problem solving in that they provide high-level commitments constraining solu;ons. In architecture, they embed the core of a design solu;on encapsula;ng its generic characteris;cs and constraints and conveying the form of possible specific solu;ons. Being not detailed prevents early commitment to a specific design solu;on and, thus, they facilitate exploratory reasoning’ (Dogan & Nersessian, 2002, p.353).
‘Traffic congestion results when there are too many vehicles for the available road space. It may occur on almost any road system but, in general, it Is likely to be experienced with great severity in and around the major employment nodes such" the central business district during the morning and afternoon peek.’ (Robinson, 1980, p.1)
‘Congestion pricing - sometimes called value pricing - is a way of harnessing the power of the market to reduce the waste associated with traffic congestion. Congestion pricing works by shifting purely discretionary rush hour highway travel to other transportation modes or to off-peak periods, taking advantage of the fact that the majority of rush hour drivers on a typical urban highway are not commuters. By removing a fraction (even as small as 5%) of the vehicles from a congested roadway, pricing enables the system to flow much more efficiently, allowing more cars to move through the same physical space. Similar variable charges have been successfully utilized in other industries - for example, airline tickets, cell phone rates, and electricity rates. There is a consensus among economists that congestion pricing represents the single most viable and sustainable approach to reducing traffic congestion.’ (U.S. Department of Transportation, 2019)
Cost benefit analysis
‘Cost benefit is used to assist choice between alternative decisions. It does so by comparing the costs and benefits that will flow from the alternatives as a guide to which choice will bring the greater margin of benefits over costs or the greater net return in benefits for resources invested’ (Lichfield, 1966, pp.215).
‘A benefit-cost ratio (BCR) is an indicator used in cost-benefit analysis to show the relationship between the relative costs and benefits of a proposed project, expressed in monetary or qualitative terms. If a project has a BCR greater than 1.0, the project is expected to deliver a positive net present value to a firm and its investors.’ (Hayes, 2019)
Cradle to Cradle
‘Cultural heritage is the legacy of physical artefacts and intangible attributes of a group or society that are inherited from past generations, maintained in the present and bestowed for the benefit of future generations.
Tangible heritage includes buildings and historic places, monuments, artifacts, etc., which are considered worthy of preservation for the future. These include objects significant to the archaeology, architecture, science or technology of a specific culture’ (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, 2017).
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