In alphabetical order


Central Provident Fund

‘The Central Provident Fund (CPF) is a comprehensive social security system that enables working Singapore Citizens and Permanent Residents to set aside funds for retirement. It also addresses healthcare, home ownership, family protection and asset enhancement.’ The savings plan for working Singaporeans and permanent residents primarily to fund their retirement, healthcare, and housing needs. The CPF is an employment based savings scheme with employers and employees contributing a mandated amount to the Fund. (Central Provident Fund Board, 2019)


Circuits of capital
Circuits of capital refer to ‘the movement of capital as a circuit, which involves three forms that replace each other in turn: money capital, productive capital, and commodity capital’ (Otani, 2018, p.283). Money is turned into capital for production of commodities for buying and selling and from the capitalist perspective, with the aim minimising circulation costs and maximising profit.


Circular economy
‘The circular economy aims to keep products and materials at maximum value and utility at all times. This is done through a combination of extending product lifetimes through reuse, refurbishment, remanufacturing; increasing resource use intensity through sharing and product service system business models (such as leasing, instead of buying, business models); and recycling materials at the end of their life’ … ‘The circular economy draws its conceptual foundations from a number of existing theories and concepts that use biological systems as models for understanding industrial processes. These include industrial ecology, cradle to cradle, biomimicry and other notions of closing and slowing loops of production’ (Sharpe & Giurco, 2018, p.21).


Citizen participation

‘A process which provides private individuals an opportunity to influence public decisions and has long been a component of the democratic decision-making process’ (Parker, 2002).


Cities are multifaceted. The rapid growth of cities had to do with the industrial revolution in the 19th century, allowing people to congregate in urban areas (Frey and Zimmer, 2001, p.15). Cities are usually defined by their population size (which vary in different parts of the world); diversified economic functions (usually non-agricultural); and people’s ways of living (Ibid., 2001, pp.26-7). Definitions of cities vary with levels of development and city functions (ibid., 2001, p.31).


City Beautiful Movement

‘The City Beautiful Movement was inspired by the 1893 World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago, with the message that cities should aspire to aesthetic value for their residents’ (The New York Preservation Archive Project, 2016).


City marketing
City marketing ‘involves the definition of a city’s product (the city as a product) and its image, in such a way that its recipients will see it as to the marketing intended. So, city marketing plays an important role, forming a bridge between a city’s potential and the use of this potential for the benefit of the local society. This is particularly the case for European cities, which are on the one hand cultural centres with strong local identities, and on the other hand, have a cosmopolitan character, not only thanks to their visitors, but also because they are in the mind of people who live far away from them or even people that may never get to visit them’ (Deffner & Liouris, 2005, p.3).


Climate change

‘Climate change is the long-term alteration of temperature and normal weather patterns in a place. This could refer to a particular location or the planet as a whole’ (National Geographic Society, 2019). Increasingly, people use the term ‘climate crisis’ to reflect the exigency of the climate conditions.


Collaborative consumption
Collaborative consumption ‘refers to as the “sharing economy” because individuals are sharing access to resources (for a fee or other compensation), or “peer-to-peer” exchange because both the service provider and recipient are individuals rather than businesses’ … ‘collaborative consumption markets are challenging existing business models and current regulatory environments. Collaborative consumption has emerged as a viable alternative to traditional business in industries such as transportation, hospitality, retail, and banking. As the popularity of these practices has grown, so has its economic, environmental, and societal impact’ … ‘Participation in collaborative consumption mitigates overconsumption by altering the consumption cycle and allowing individuals to acquire, use, and dispose of their assets in a way that positively influences the three pillars of sustainability: environmental, economic, and social. Environmental benefits are realized by extracting more use from assets that would otherwise go unused’ (Perren & Grauerholz, 2015, pp.139, 142).



‘Work constructed of assemblages of disparate fragments, e.g. a picture made from scraps of paper, newspaper cuttings, and oddments pasted onto a backing’ (Curl & Wilson, 2015, p.67).



Colonialism is a system of domination whereby an external, sovereign country willfully and forcefully occupies another, independent country/territory in order to exploit the latter’s human and natural resources. In the process, the colonizing country imposes its system of governance, laws, culture, religion, language, education, and economics on its colonial objects (Sackey, 2012).


Command-and-control policy
‘Command—and—control policy refers to environmental policy that relies on regulation (permission, prohibition, standard setting and enforcement) as opposed to financial incentives, that is, economic instruments of cost internalization’ (OECD, 2001).


Common goods

‘Common pool resources (CPRs) or commons, which are non-excludable but subject to rivalry, such as fisheries, free meadows, hunting game, and groundwater basins.’ ... ‘For goods with the rivalry attribute, a unit of CPR taken by one person is taken away from another person. For goods with the non-excludability attribute, no one can singularly claim property rights.’ (Martelli, 2011)


Common-interest community
‘Common-interest communities, also known as common-interest developments or CIDs, include condominiums, coops, retirement communities, vacation timeshares, and other housing developments comprised of individually owned units, in addition to shared facilities and common areas. CIDs usually are created through a set of legal documents drafted by the developer, which may change according to the community's needs. Typically, these types of communities are governed by an association made up of the individual unit owners, most often through an elected board’ (FindLaw, 2019, para.1).


Communicative planning
Communicative planning theory (CPT) advocates ‘resolving controversial goals of different stakeholders through open and facilitative discussions, mediation and fairness-seeking consensus building’ (Hytönen, 2016, p.223).


Community ‘relates to a form of social organization based upon some commonality between individuals, which results in them being defined as members of such a community and simultaneously demarcates others who are not members of the community’ (Flint, 2009, pp.354-355).


Compact cities

‘Cities of a form and scale appropriate to walking, cycling and efficient public transport, and with a compactness that encourages social interaction’ (Jenks, Burton & Williams, 1996, p.3).


Comparative advantage

A region may be producing a particular product with a lower opportunity cost. This may lead to specialization and trade. (O'Sullivan, 2012, p.18-19)


Comparative urbanism

The systematic study of interlinkages, similarities and differences between cities and urban processes (Mayhew, 2015a).


A key concept in economic geography and sources of competitiveness ‘have been identified in access to resources or markets, labor qualities, agglomeration economies, transactions costs, firm or commodity chain organization, social institutions, and government policy and spending’ (Lewis, 2009, p.226).


Conceptual diagram

In architecture, conceptual diagram is an ‘abstract representa;on’ to ‘represent a conceptualiza;on of a poten;al problem solu;on’ ... ‘Conceptual diagrams are concise, yet powerful aids in problem solving in that they provide high-level commitments constraining solu;ons. In architecture, they embed the core of a design solu;on encapsula;ng its generic characteris;cs and constraints and conveying the form of possible specific solu;ons. Being not detailed prevents early commitment to a specific design solu;on and, thus, they facilitate exploratory reasoning’ (Dogan & Nersessian, 2002, p.353).



‘Traffic congestion results when there are too many vehicles for the available road space. It may occur on almost any road system but, in general, it Is likely to be experienced with great severity in and around the major employment nodes such" the central business district during the morning and afternoon peek.’ (Robinson, 1980, p.1)


Congestion pricing

‘Congestion pricing - sometimes called value pricing - is a way of harnessing the power of the market to reduce the waste associated with traffic congestion. Congestion pricing works by shifting purely discretionary rush hour highway travel to other transportation modes or to off-peak periods, taking advantage of the fact that the majority of rush hour drivers on a typical urban highway are not commuters. By removing a fraction (even as small as 5%) of the vehicles from a congested roadway, pricing enables the system to flow much more efficiently, allowing more cars to move through the same physical space. Similar variable charges have been successfully utilized in other industries - for example, airline tickets, cell phone rates, and electricity rates. There is a consensus among economists that congestion pricing represents the single most viable and sustainable approach to reducing traffic congestion.’ (U.S. Department of Transportation, 2019)


Cost benefit analysis

‘Cost benefit is used to assist choice between alternative decisions. It does so by comparing the costs and benefits that will flow from the alternatives as a guide to which choice will bring the greater margin of benefits over costs or the greater net return in benefits for resources invested’ (Lichfield, 1966, pp.215).


Cost-benefit ratio

‘A benefit-cost ratio (BCR) is an indicator used in cost-benefit analysis to show the relationship between the relative costs and benefits of a proposed project, expressed in monetary or qualitative terms. If a project has a BCR greater than 1.0, the project is expected to deliver a positive net present value to a firm and its investors.’ (Hayes, 2019)


Cradle to Cradle
‘Cradle-to-cradle (C2C) is based on the principle that the whole life cycle of products and services needs to be redesigned so that every waste is a raw material for another round of production, service, or use. It aims to create systems that are both eco-efficient and waste-free, and can be been applied to industrial designs and manufacturing as well as urban environments, buildings, economics, and social systems’ (Grover, 2011, p.122).


Created space
People have learned to tame nature and to transcend its many limitations, producing ‘created space’ (Saunders, 2001, p.36). The question is who has a right to shape such creation and use it.


Cultural heritage

‘Cultural heritage is the legacy of physical artefacts and intangible attributes of a group or society that are inherited from past generations, maintained in the present and bestowed for the benefit of future generations.

Tangible heritage includes buildings and historic places, monuments, artifacts, etc., which are considered worthy of preservation for the future. These include objects significant to the archaeology, architecture, science or technology of a specific culture’ (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, 2017).

Reference List

Central Provident Fund Board. (2019). CPF Overview. Retrieved from

Curl, J., & Wilson, S. (2015). Collage. The Oxford Dictionary of Architecture [electronic Resource]. 67, retrieved from

Deffner, A. & Liouris, C. (2005). City marketing: A significant planning tool for urban development in a globalized economy. Retrieved from

Dogan, F., & Nersessian, N.J. (2002). Conceptual Diagrams: Representing Ideas in Design. Diagrams. Retrieved from

FindLaw. (2019). What is a Common-interest Community? Retrieved from

Flint, J. (2009). Neighborhoods and Community. International Encyclopedia of Human Geography, p.354-359.

Fry, W.H. and Zimmer, Z. (2001). Defining the city. In In Paddison, R. (2001) (ed.). Handbook of Urban Studies, London, UK: Sage Publications, pp.14-35.

Grover, V. (2011). Cradle-to-Cradle. In Green Business: An A-to-Z Guide. 122-124. Retrieved from

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Hytönen, J. (2016). The problematic relationship of communicative planning theory and the Finnish legal culture. Planning Theory, 15(3), pp.223-238. Retrieved from

Jenks, M., Burton, E., & Williams, K. (1996). ‘Introduction: Sustainable Urban Form in Developing Countries?’. In The Compact City: A Sustainable Urban Form?  London: E & FN Spon, 1-6

Lewis, N. (2009). Competitiveness. International Encyclopedia of Human Geography, p.226-233.

Lichfield, N. (1966). Cost Benefit Analysis in Town Planning: A Case Study: Swanley. Urban Studies, 3(3), pp.215–249.

Martelli, P. (2011). Common Goods. In B. Badie, D. Berg-Schlosser, & L. Morlino (Eds.), International Encyclopedia of Political Science (Vol. 2, pp. 307-310). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Reference.

Mayhew, S. (2015a). Comparative urbanism. In A Dictionary of Geography: Oxford University Press. Retrieved from

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O’Sullivan, A. (2012). Urban economics (8th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

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Otani, T. (2018). The circuit of capital. In A Guide to Marxian Political Economy: What Kind of a Social System Is Capitalism? Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 281-296. Retrieved from

Parker, B. (2002). Planning Analysis: The Theory of Citizen Participation. Retrieved from

Perren, Rebeca & Grauerholz, Liz. (2015). Collaborative Consumption. In International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences. 139-144.

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Sackey, B. M. (2012). Colonialism. In The Wiley-Blackwell Companion to Religion and Social Justice (pp. 456-468). John Wiley and Sons.

Saunders, P. (2001). Urban ecology. In Paddison, R. (2001) (ed.). Handbook of Urban Studies, London, UK: Sage Publications, pp.36-51.

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