In alphabetical order


Advocacy planning
‘The concept of advocacy planning was given by Paul Davidoff. In this type of planning, there are various interest groups. They can be as follows: 1. political parties (in power or in opposition) 2. special interest groups such as groups against racial discrimination, pro or anti civil rights groups, chambers of commerce, labour organisations, NGOs aiming at protecting the environment etc. 3. Ad-hoc associations protesting against existing policies. These groups have their own needs which they represent through the preparation of plural plans’ (Planning Tank, 2019a, para.2).


Affordable housing

‘Dwellings built specifically for those on incomes that deny them the opportunity to purchase or rent on the open market’ (Pacione, 2009, p.196)


Agglomeration economies

Agglomeration economies refer to ‘the benefits that come when firms and people locate near one another together in cities and industrial clusters’ (Glaeser, 2010, p.1).


‘The Anthropocene originated from the natural sciences in general and from the earth sciences in particular. The core thesis is that humanity has affected nature over the last two hundred years or so in such a way that a new, human-made stratum has emerged in the geological record. Only a few years after Crutzen and Stoermer popularized the Anthropocene as the new geological “age of mankind,” the International Commission on Stratigraphy’s Subcommission on Quaternary Stratigraphy established a working group to determine whether there is enough scientific evidence to define a new Earth era. This new era, the Anthropocene, would succeed the Holocene, which started about 12,000 years ago during the Neolithic Revolution, when humans began to use agriculture in addition to hunting and gathering. The Greek word Holocene literally means “entirely recent”, which indicates that there is not much room for moving to something novel in a discipline that usually counts in hundreds of thousands and millions of years’ (Trischler, 2013, pp.5-8).


Asian city

Asian cities are often categorized as an ‘exotic others’ in relation to their Western counterparts, by being elevated onto a mythical pedestal, yet Asian cities should not only be explored through their unique qualities, localisms and unique ‘cosmopolitan vernacular’ expressions, but also by looking at how they influence and are influenced by other cities (Ren & Luger, 2015).


Asian Development Bank

‘The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is an international development finance institution dedicated to reducing poverty in Asia and the Pacific through loans, grants, research and technical assistance to its member countries, as well as investments in private companies.’ (Regional Knowledge Center, 2016)


Asian Infrastructure Development Bank

‘The Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank is a new multilateral development bank founded to bring countries together to address the daunting infrastructure needs across Asia. Headquartered in Beijing, AIIB commenced its operation in January 2016 and has now grown to 77 approved members from all over the world. Its mission is to improve economic and social development in Asia by investing in high quality, financially viable and environmentally friendly infrastructure projects.’ (Inter-American Development Bank 2017)


Asset-based Community Development (ABCD)
‘Asset Based Community Development (ABCD) is an approach to sustainable community-driven development. Beyond the mobilisation of a particular community, it is concerned with how to link micro-assets to the macro-environment. Asset Based Community Development’s premise is that communities can drive the development process themselves by identifying and mobilizing existing, but often unrecognised assets. Thereby responding to challenges and creating local social improvement and economic development’ (Nurture Development Ltd., 2018, para.1).


Automobile cities

The automobile in the cities facilitated the uninhibited outward expansion of the city due that people and business were no longer constrained to the fixed-tract public transport systems or walking-scale environment. The automobile cities are feature with low density, separated uses, arterial grid and decentralized urban form (Schiller et al., 2010, p. 27-28)


Axonometric projection

‘Axonometric projection creates a true plan set at 45º, which retains the original orthogonal geometry of the plan. Planning drawings can also be effective represented as axonometric projections, showing the relationships between buildings and topography’

(Drawing projections, Designing Buildings Wiki, 2018).


Reference List

Drawing projections. (2018). Designing Buildings Wiki. Retrieved from

Glaeser, E.L. (2010). Agglomeration Economics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Inter-American Development Bank. (2017, May 16). The IDB Group and the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank Expand Ties[Press release]. Retrieved from

Nurture Development Ltd. (2018). Asset Based Community Development (ABCD). Retrieved from

Pacione, M. (2009). Housing. International Encyclopedia of Human Geography, p.196-200.

Planning Tank. (2019a). Advocacy Planning Concept. Retrieved from

Regional Knowledge Center. (2016). The Asian Development Bank (ADB). Retrieved from

Ren, J., & Luger, J. (2015). Comparative Urbanism and the ‘Asian City’: Implications for Research and Theory. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 39(1), 145-156.

Schiller, P. L. Bruun, E. C. and Kenworthy, J. R. An Introduction to Sustainable Transportation: Policy, Planning and Implementation. London: Routledge, 2010

Trischler, H. (2013). Introduction. RCC Perspectives, (3), 5-8. Retrieved from