Asset-based Community Development (ABCD)
Barrier free environment
Circuits of capital
‘A process which provides private individuals an opportunity to influence public decisions and has long been a component of the democratic decision-making process’ (Parker, 2002).
- An urban management process that ‘ensures the persistent growth and management of settlements with orderliness, improved settlement reflection, healthy and aesthetics. It also ensures that the environmental challenges as a result of settlement growth can be reduced to bearable levels’ (Vivan, Kyom, Balasom, 2013)
- The process of considering and granting or refusing permission for development. (Huxley, 2009, p.193)
‘The notion of creating images of the future to serve as goals or guides for planning decisions’ (Shipley, 2002) and ‘a clear guidance that sets the context for development based upon a clear vision of the future’ (Roberts, 1996, cited in Shipley, 2002).
Hong Kong Planning Standard and Guidelines
‘The Hong Kong Planning Standards and Guidelines (HKPSG) is a Government manual of criteria for determining the scale, location and site requirements of various land uses and facilities. This manual is applied in planning studies, preparation/revision of town plans and development control’ (Planning Department, 2018, p.1). For the full document, please refer to the reference (Planning Department, 2020).
Informality refers to ‘the collection of firms, workers, and activities that operate outside the legal and regulatory frameworks or outside the modern economy’ (Loayza, 2016, p.2).
Ladder of citizen participation
Learning by doing
Neoliberalism is a short-hand term for the economisation of social life. It is distinguished by the decline of the welfare states, deregulation, entrepreneurialism and the advent of the individual initiative as a means of ensuring economic and social well-being (Larner, 2009).
Outline zoning plan
One of the four planning traditions, in which planners ‘tend to think of themselves as technicians or technocrats (Political analyst), serving the existing centers of power—large private corporations and the state’...‘They believe that by using appropriate scientific theories and mathematical techniques (rationality), they can, at least in principle, identify and precisely calculate “best solutions”’(Friedmann, 1988, pp.12-13).
Preponderance (majority) theory
Rational comprehensive planning
One of the four planning traditions identified by Friedmann (1988). In this tradition, planners (social learning theorists) believe that ‘knowledge is derived from experience and validated in practice, and therefore it is integrally a part of action. They change residents’ social behaviors through social experimentation, careful observation of the results, and enhancing willingness to admit to error and to learn from it’ (Friedmann, 1988, pp.13-14). Thus, planners aim at empowering residents to put their knowledge into action to change existing power relationships.
One of the four planning traditions, in which ‘planning appears as a form of politics, conducted without the meditations of “science”. Nevertheless, scientific analysis, particularly in the form of social learning, plays an important role in the transformative process sought by social mobilization. Change is onset by politics of disengagement or by politics of confrontation’ (Friedmann, 1988, p.14).
One of the four planning traditions, in which ‘[t]he tradition of social reform focuses on the role of the state in societal guidance. It is chiefly concerned with finding ways to institutionalize planning practice and make action by the state more effective; Under this mindset, planners work for a ‘“scientific endeavor”, and one of their main preoccupations is with using the scientific paradigm to inform and to limit politics to what are deemed to be its proper concerns’ (Friedmann, 1988, pp.11-12). While striving for change, the plan actually reinforces the existing power relationship.
Tertiary Planning Unit (TPU)
The Tertiary Planning Unit (TPU) is a geographic reference system demarcated by the Planning Department for the territory of Hong Kong. Each TPU is subdivided into a number of Street Blocks (SB) for urban areas and Village Clusters (VC) for rural areas (Hong Kong Government, 2004).
Town Planning Ordinance
The Town Planning Ordinance is a procedural legal document and legislation ‘to promote the health, safety, convenience and general welfare of the community by making provision for the systematic preparation and approval of plans for the lay-out of areas of Hong Kong as well as for the types of building suitable for erection therein and for the preparation and approval of plans for areas within which permission is required for development’ (Department of Justice, 2017).
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