In alphabetical order



Neoliberalism is a short-hand term for the economisation of social life. It is distinguished by the decline of the welfare states, deregulation, entrepreneurialism and the advent of the individual initiative as a means of ensuring economic and social well-being (Larner, 2009).


New towns

‘New Towns are cities or towns that are designed from scratch and built in a short period of time. They are designed by professionals according to a Master Plan on a site where there was no city before. This distinguishes a New Town from a ‘normal’ city that gradually grows and evolves over time. Also, New Towns are mostly the result of a political (top-down) decision. The building of a new city ‘from scratch’ is a heroic enterprise that challenges the architect or planner to find the ideal shape for the urban program according to the state of the art planning ideas. A New Town is always a reflection of one moment in time and the ambitions of that moment’ (International New Town Institute, 2019).

‘Hong Kong has developed nine new towns since the initiation of its New Town Development Programme in 1973. The target at the commencement of the New Town Development Programme was to provide housing for about 1.8 million people in the first three new towns, namely, Tsuen Wan, Sha Tin and Tuen Mun.  (...) The first (Tsuen Wan, Sha Tin and Tuen Mun) started works in the early 1970s; then the second (Tai Po, Fanling/Sheung Shui and Yuen Long) in the late 1970s; and the third (Tseung Kwan O, Tin Shui Wai and Tung Chung) in the 1980s and 1990s. (...) All the new towns accommodate public and private housing supported by essential infrastructure and community facilities. External transport links were developed with all new towns now served by rail links to the urban area and road links to the adjacent districts. Further enhancement of road links is ongoing’ (Hong Kong: The Facts, 2016).


New urban politics
The rise of new urban politics has to do with ‘growing competition between cities in the search to tap into growth opportunities at varying spatial scales, linked with the rise in more entrepreneurial forms of city leadership such as public-private partnerships in driving strategies for urban development and regeneration’ (McNeill and While, 2001, p. 299).

Reference List

International New Town Institute. (2019). What is a new town? Retrieved from

Larner, W. (2009). Neoliberalism. International Encyclopedia of Human Geography, 374-378.

McNeill, D. and While, A. (2001). The new urban economies. In Paddison, R. (2001) (ed.). Handbook of Urban Studies, London, UK: Sage Publications, pp.296-307.

New Towns, New Development Areas and Urban Developments (2016). Hong Kong: The Facts. New Towns, New Development Areas and Urban Developments. Retrieved from