In alphabetical order



‘The debt-to-income (DTI) ratio is a personal finance measure that compares an individual’s debt payment to his or her overall income.’ The debt-to-income ratio is one way lenders, including mortgage lenders, measure an individual’s ability to manage monthly payment and repay debts. DTI is calculated by dividing total recurring monthly debt by gross monthly income, and it is expressed as a percentage.’ (Murphy, 2019)



‘The process of making choices by identifying a decision, gathering information, and assessing alternative resolutions’ (FYCM, n.d.)


Declared monuments

‘Hong Kong has many monuments which need proper preservation. In accordance with the Antiquities and Monuments Ordinance, the Antiquities Authority may, after consultation with the Antiquities Advisory Board and with the approval of the Chief Executive, by notice in the Gazette, declare a place, building, site or structure as a monument. The Antiquities Authority is then empowered to prevent alterations, or to impose conditions upon any proposed alterations as she/he thinks fit, in order to protect the monument’ (Antiquities and Monuments Office, 2019).


Deliberative democracy
Deliberation is ‘defined minimally to mean mutual communication that involves weighing and reflecting on preferences, values, and interests regarding matters of common concern. Deliberative democracy incorporates the requirements that deliberation takes place in contexts of equal recognition, respect, reciprocity, and sufficiently equal power for communicative influence to function. These aspirational ideals have inspired a flourishing field, with theoretical and empirical research across many disciplines, and many democratic innovations and practices in many countries and cultures’ (Bächtiger, Dryzek, Mansbridge & Warren, 2018, para.1).


Density gradient

The density gradient is defined as ‘percentage change in density per additional mile from the city center.’ (O'Sullivan, 2012, p.170)


‘Deontology is a theory that suggests actions are good or bad according to a clear set of rules’ (The Ethics Centre, 2016, para.1).


Design for Disassembly (DFD)
‘DfD can be defined as a method to design a building/product in such a way that it enables the disassembly of building/components and reuse/recycling of its parts/materials. DfD requires a new approach to design and will result in a building/component designed for all the stages of its life-cycle’ (Thormark, n.d., p.1).


Design with nature

‘The way we occupy and modify the earth is best when it is planned and designed with careful regard to both the ecology and the character of the landscape’ (Weller et al., n.d.).


Development control
  1. An urban management process that ‘ensures the persistent growth and management of settlements with orderliness, improved settlement reflection, healthy and aesthetics. It also ensures that the environmental challenges as a result of settlement growth can be reduced to bearable levels’ (Vivan, Kyom, Balasom, 2013)
  2. The process of considering and granting or refusing permission for development. (Huxley, 2009, p.193)



Developmentalism is a wide-ranging and complex philosophical position that sustains the idea of development – understood to be modernization as Westernization as a normative goal (Watts, 2009).


DiPasquale-Wheaton Four-Quadrant Model

‘The DiPasquale-Wheaton model, uses one demand curve and

two supply curves, in addition to the relation of rental to asset price through the cap rate and the relation between the quantity of newly constructed stock and the existing stock through the depreciation rate.’ (DeSalvo, 2017, p.7)



This concept is ‘often used to vaguely refer to spoken and written language while at other times it includes all forms of representation and refers quite specifically to theories derived from the work of post-structuralism in general and the work of Michel Foucault in particular. Foucault’s theory of discourse concerns how we know what we know, where knowledge comes from, who is authorized to profess it and how, ultimately, “truth” is established’ (Cresswell, 2009, p.211).


Disrupted city

Urban life suffers from the failure of urban infrastructures as the infrastructural disruption ‘tends to cascade between different networks and across geography and time in highly unpredictable and nonlinear ways’ (Graham, 2010, pp.25).


Distribution cost

‘The cost of transporting the firm’s output from the production facility to the output market.’ (O'Sullivan, 2012, p.38)


Doughnut economics
An economy that ‘ensures no one falls short on life’s essentials (from food and housing to healthcare and political voice), while ensuring that collectively we do not overshoot our pressure on Earth’s life-supporting systems, on which we fundamentally depend – such as a stable climate, fertile soils, and a protective ozone layer’ (Raworth, 2017, para.1).


Dystopia is the opposite of utopia (eu topos- a "good place", dis topos- a "bad place"), depicting imagined universe and fictional societies in which the living is bad and imperfect because of human misery, poverty, terror, corruption and oppression’ (Utopia and Dystopia, 2019).

Reference List

Antiquities and Monuments Office (2019). Declared Monuments in Hong Kong. Retrieved from

Bächtiger, A., Dryzek, J., Mansbridge, J., & Warren, M. (2018). Deliberative Democracy: An Introduction. In The Oxford Handbook of Deliberative Democracy. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Retrieved from

Cresswell, T. (2009). Discourse. In International Encyclopedia of Human Geography, 211-214.

DeSalvo, J.S. (2007). Teaching the DiPasquale-Wheaton Model, p.7. Retrieved from

FYCM (n.d.) Decision Making Process. Retrieved from

Graham, Stephen. (2010). Disrupted cities: When infrastructure fails. New York: Routledge. 9(1). 1-26. Retrieved from

Huxley, M. (2009). Planning, Urban. In International Encyclopedia of Human Geography, Elsevier: Tokyo and Amsterdam, p.193-198.

Li, Susie (2015). ‘DfD Buildings: What is Design for Disassembly?’. Poplar. Retrieved from

Murphy, C.B. (2019). Debt-To-Income Ratio – DTI. In Investopedia. Retrieved from

O’Sullivan, A. (2012). Urban economics (8th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

Raworth, Kate. (2017). ‘What on Earth is the Doughnut?’. Kate Raworth – Exploring doughnut economics [Blog]. Retrieved from

The Ethics Centre. (2016). Ethics Explainer: Deontology. Retrieved from

Thormark, Catarina. (n.d.). Motives for design for disassembly in building construction. Retrived from

Utopia and Dystopia. (2019). Dystopia Definition – Meaning and Concepts of Dystopia. Retrieved from

Vivan, E. L., Kyom, B. C. & Balasom, M. K. (2013). The Nature, Scope and Dimensions of Development Control, Tools and Machineries in Urban Planning in Nigeria. International Journal of Innovative Environmental Studies Research 1 (1), p.48-54.

Watts, M. (2009). Developmentalism. In International Encyclopedia of Human Geography, 123-130.

Weller, R., Steiner, F. & Fleming, B. (n.d.). What Does it Mean to Design with Nature now? Retrieved from