In alphabetical order


Paradigm city

A city that sets benchmarks for other cities to emulate or appears as the site of emergent urban trends.


Pareto optimality
‘Pareto efficiency, or Pareto optimality, is an economic state where resources cannot be reallocated to make one individual better off without making at least one individual worse off. Pareto efficiency implies that resources are allocated in the most efficient manner, but does not imply equality or fairness’ (Chappelow, 2019, para.1).


Passive design
‘”Passive design” is a design that takes advantage of the climate to maintain a comfortable temperature range in the home, which reduces or eliminates the need for auxiliary heating or cooling’ (McGee, 2013, p.87).



‘In many cases, the implementation outline and phasing schedule are major parts of a master plan, highlighting the timetable and phasing for the delivery of the site’s development. This will give the government and the community an indication of how development will be staged with infrastructure and services provision and will provide the reasoning for the chosen phasing order. The phasing of the development should be described, detailing which elements will be built first and which later, which decisions should be made early, and which should be allowed to evolve in response to future opportunities. The phasing should be planned around the potential to deliver infrastructure. It should also take into account any relocation of people, sale or rental of land, the property market, possible movement issues, land ownership patterns, funding availability, and relevant planning processes and legislation’ (World Bank, 2015).


Place vs Space

‘Jessop et al. (2008) claim that different approaches should be used simultaneously when investigating place – place should be viewed as specific location, as a wider territory, as consisting of networks and finally extending over different scales. Jauhiainen (2005) has similarly divided studies of urban space into four broad categories: space as materiality – space exists as a product of economic activity; space as distinctive character – space is seen as consisting of borders, the speciality of location is stressed; space as activity – the focus is given to socio-spatial relation in space; and space as contextuality – space exists only after it has been given a meaning through human consciousness as well as by the means of material resources.’ ... ‘Place for us is socially constructed and operating, including interaction between people and groups, institutionalized land uses, political and economic decisions, and the language of representation’ (Saar & Palang, 2009, pp.6-7).



‘Placemaking is a people-centred approach to the planning, design and management of public spaces. Put simply, it involves looking at, listening to, and asking questions of the people who live, work and play in a particular space, to discover needs and aspirations. This information is then used to create a common vision for that place. The vision can evolve quickly into an implementation strategy, beginning with small-scale, do-able improvements that can immediately bring benefits to public spaces and the people who use them’ (Placemaking Chicago, 2008).


Plan evaluation

‘The concept of evaluation comprehends every mental, cognitive, axiological and instrumental process of value assignment (whatever the type of value one is considering)’... ‘Evaluation measures specific aspects of the plan with the purpose of determining its value. It is the process used to measure how effective the plan is to achieve its goals and to enables decision-making based on the level of quality demonstrated’ (Amado & Cavaco, 2015, p. 29).


Plan generation

The generation of a plan through research (a systematic exploration of practices elsewhere) and creative design with appropriate methods and skills (Bayne, 1995).


Plan implementation

‘“Implementation” is essentially more related to the spatial plans (comparing to “realization”, which only refers to actual physical functioning in the space) and the set of planning solutions that may include construction, policy and the strategy of behavior in space, as well as protection of space, the possibility of applying a rule, and so on, and it is therefore justifiable and necessary to use it for the purposes of spatial planning’ (Stefanović et al., 2018, p.60).


Planning balance sheet

‘Planning Balance Sheet establishes a framework of objectives and sub attributes and then scores and weights each item for each option. ... It shows the trade-offs between cost, performance and impact and can also be used for sensitivity testing’ (Greater Wellington Regional Council & Transit New Zealand, 2005, p.1).


Planning ethics
‘Planning is both a profession and a discipline that has at its foundation questions of how to best develop land, social programs, housing, parks, health services, and other aspects of human settlements’… Planning ethics…‘or moral philosophy, provides a means of analyzing normative ways of responding to planning challenges’ (Hendler, 2015, p.385).


Plot ratio

‘Plot ratio is defined as the ratio between the gross floor area of a building and the area of the site on which it is erected (the Net Site Area).’ (Planning Department, 2018b, p.4)


Policy analysis

One of the four planning traditions, in which planners ‘tend to think of themselves as technicians or technocrats (Political analyst), serving the existing centers of power—large private corporations and the state’...‘They believe that by using appropriate scientific theories and mathematical techniques (rationality), they can, at least in principle, identify and precisely calculate “best solutions”’(Friedmann, 1988, pp.12-13).


Political bargaining model

A decision-making model that involves long bargaining processes ‘to keep powerful political and economic players from abusing their control over the provision of structural services’ (Doron & Sened, 2001, p.14).


‘As a general concept, the practice of the art or science of directing and administrating states or other political units. The traditional definition of politics, “the art and science of government”, offers no constraint on its application since there has never been a consensus on which activities count as government. A modern mainstream view might be: politics applies only to human beings, or at least to those beings which can communicate symbolically and thus make statements, invoke principles, argue, and disagree. Politics occurs where people disagree about the distribution of goods, benefits, or statuses and have at least some procedures for the resolution of such disagreements’ (Brown et al, 2018, p.62).


In the early 1980s, under the influence of Marxist regulation theory, the term ‘Fordism’ was used to describe a ‘regime of accumulation’ ... in which mass production was linked to mass consumption. The widespread introduction of flexible specialization, small-batch production, niche consumption, just‐in‐time management strategies, and the popularity of monetarist ideologies among governments, is said to signal the introduction in the 1980s of ‘post‐Fordism’ (Burnham, 2018, p.3).


Post-socialist cities

Post-socialist cities have a defining relation to the socialist past, representing a project of catching up, of reducing the imagined distance in both time and space with the Western cities (Ferenčuhová & Gentile, 2016).


Postcolonial cities

Postcolonial cities refer to those cities that were previously colonized. Post-coloniality ‘may also imply a particular critique, one which not only emphasizes the distinctive impact which colonialism has had on the economy, society, culture, spatial form, and architecture of the city but also on the way the city itself is understood and represented’ (King, 2009, p.321).



Poverty ‘encompasses living conditions, an inability to meet basic needs because food, clean drinking water, proper sanitation, education, health care and other social services are inaccessible’ (Compassion International, n.d.).


According to (Foucault, 1991), power refers to diffused social relations with varying abilities to shape, change or govern the conduct of others. Hence, it is central to subject formation and truth claims in a given socio-economic and political setting.


‘Pragmatism is the collective name for a family of theories emphasizing the practical consequences of holding a belief as a means to evaluating the truth of that belief. This focus on the practical was born of attempts to evade or escape many of the traditional metaphysical and epistemological puzzles and problems of traditional Western philosophy’ (Barnes, 2005, p.1883).


Pre-sale arrangement

‘Obtaining a pre-sale distribution agreement is one of the best ways of getting financing for the picture. This is an effective financing tool, because the foreign distribution agreement is a form of security for investors.  The filmmaker is generally required, as a condition of the pre-sale agreement, to obtain a completion bond (an insurance policy covering the cost of completing the film if the filmmaker is unable to do so).’ (HRBEK Law, 2019)


Preponderance (majority) theory
It means ‘a superiority based on number, weight, power, importance or strength’ (“Preponderance”, 2020, entry 1-2).


Price-to-income ratio

‘The concept of price-to-income ratio is used to measure the affordability of homes in a certain area. When banks and financial institutions extent home loans, they consider the price-to-income ratio to assess how affordable it is to the home loan seeker. The price-to-income ratio is generally known as attainability. It is especially used to measure the long-term affordability of homes in a region. The price-to-income ratio is also a good parameter to judge the current affordability of homes in a region relative to how affordable it historically was. If the price-to-income ratio is going up, it means that homes are becoming less affordable. If the price-to-income ratio is declining, it means that homes are becoming more affordable.’ (Proptiger, 2015)


Principal city

‘The largest municipality in each metropolitan or micropolitan statistical area.’ (O'Sullivan, 2012, p.3)


Private goods

Public goods refer anything that rivals and is excludable in consumption. Since it is rivalry in consumption, it has finite availability, in which individual consumption will decrease the availability of the good to other consumers. Also, due to its excludability in consumption, it can only be used, or consumed, by one party at the same time. (Chen, 2019)


Private sector
‘The private sector is the part of the economy that is run by individuals and companies for profit and is not state controlled. Therefore, it encompasses all for-profit businesses that are not owned or operated by the government. Companies and corporations that are government run are part of what is known as the public sector, while charities and other nonprofit organizations are part of the voluntary sector’ (Investopedia, 2019d).


Programme planning

‘Planning is a vital part of the programme and project management process. A plan is basically the route-map through the programme or project from start to finish.’ (Department of Finance, n.d.)


Property cycle 

Property cycle can be divided into 4 phases: 

  • Stable opportunity stage is ‘the opportunity phase is where prices are stable, leading many people to believe it’s a good time to invest. Those that understand the property cycle will also identify that this is the start of an upswing in the property market that will see prices rise. Because of this, it is widely deemed a bad time to sell.’ 
  • The growth phase sees property values begin to increase slowly as vacancy rates fall and rent prices start to rise as investors see the potential in an area. This phase sees opportunities appear more clearly, but not as clearly as they will in the peak phase. Interest rates are usually low and it tends to be easier to get finance in the early stages of the growth phase. Value will usually start to grow in inner city suburbs and those near the beach. A ripple effect will then see growth expand to middle suburbs and finally to outer suburbs. The middle of the growth phase is often seen as an excellent time to invest as property is still relatively affordable, yet favourable returns are conceivable as the cycle advances into the peak phase. 
  • Peak phase is ‘usually the shortest and can often feel quite frantic as vendors push up demand and investors flood the market, competing to make the most of this rapid growth. Eventually the peak phase fizzles out as builders, developers, developers and home-owners flood the market with properties leading to an excess in supply.’ 
  • ‘This results in what is known as the fall or slump phase. With too many investment properties on the market, vacancy rates increase, rental returns begin to decrease and prices stabilise (or even drop). This phase can be stressful for new investors who bought during the boom phase, only to struggle with repayments as investment returns decrease.’ 

(Optimal Property Group, 2019) 


Public engagement
‘Public engagement describes the myriad of ways in which the activity and benefits of higher education and research can be shared with the public. Engagement is by definition a two-way process, involving interaction and listening, with the goal of generating mutual benefit. (...) Mutual benefit is an important part of our definition as we are keen to emphasise that high quality public engagement benefits all those involved. Benefits might include learning, developing new skills, gaining new insights or ideas, developing better research, raising aspiration, or being inspired’ (National Co-ordinating Centre for Public Engagement, 2018, para. 2-3).


Public goods

‘Pure public goods have two defining features. One is “non‐rivalry,” meaning that one person’s enjoyment of a good does not diminish the ability of other people to enjoy the same good. The other is “non‐excludability,” meaning that people cannot be prevented from enjoying the good’. (Kotchen, 2012, p.1)


Public interest
‘The duty to pursue the public interest is defined by two demands that are made on professionals in public service: (1) to reflect on its many facets disclosed through broad representation and dialogue, and (2) to engage genuinely the duties and values associated with four aspects of public interest: democracy, mutuality, sustainability, and legacy’ (Lewis, 2006, p.694).


Public-private partnership (PPP)

‘Public-private partnerships involve collaboration between a government agency and a private-sector company that can be used to finance, build, and operate projects, such as public transportation networks, parks, and convention centers. Financing a project through a public-private partnership can allow a project to be completed sooner or make it a possibility in the first place.’ (Kenton, 2019b)


Public rental housing 

‘Public housing is a form of long-term rental social housing in Hong Kong and other markets.’ (HousingVic, 2018) 


Public sector
‘Public sector, portion of the economy composed of all levels of government and government-controlled enterprises. It does not include private companies, voluntary organizations, and households. The general definition of the public sector includes government ownership or control rather than mere function and thereby includes, for example, the exercise of public authority or the implementation of public policy. When pictured as concentric circles, the core public service in central and subnational government agencies defines the inner circle of the public sector’ (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2019).


Public space

‘Property that is open to public use, including streets, sidewalks, parks, plazas, malls, cafes, interior courtyards, and so forth. It can be privately or publicly owned’ (Mitchell & Staeheli, 2009, p.511).


Public works programme

‘Public works programmes are a subset of social protection programmes, generally defined as public labour‐intensive infrastructure development initiatives which provide cash or food‐based payments. Such programmes have a number of potential technical and political attributes. They provide income transfers to the poor through employment and are often designed to smooth income particularly during ‘slack’ or ‘hungry’ periods of the year and they often build infrastructure, such as rural roads, irrigation, water harvest facilities, tree plantation, school and health clinic facilities.’ (Holmes & Jones, 2011, p.6)

Reference List

Amado, A., & Cavaco, C. (2015). Benefits of Evaluation in Spatial Planning: Learnings from Three Methodologies. International Journal for Housing Science and Its Applications, 39(1), pp.27-38.

Barnes, S. (2005). Pragmatism. In M. C. Horowitz (Ed.), New Dictionary of the History of Ideas (Vol. 5, 1883-1886). Detroit, MI: Charles Scribner’s Sons. Retrieved from

Bayne, P. (1995). Generating Alternatives: A Neglected Dimension in Planning Theory. Town Planning Review, 66(3), pp.303-320.

Brown, G., McLean, I., & McMillan, A. (2018). Politics. A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4th ed.). Oxford University Press, 62. Retrieved from

Burnham, P. (2018). fordism. In A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations.: Oxford University Press, 63. Retrieved from

Chappelow, J. (2019). Pareto Efficiency. In Investopedia. Retrieved from

Chen, J. (2019). Private Good. In Investopedia. Retrieved from:

Compassion International. (n.d.). ‘What is Poverty?’. Retrieved from

Department of Finance. (n.d.). Programme and project planning. Retrieved from

Doron, G. & Sened, I. (2001). Political Bargaining: Theory, Practice and Process. SAGE: London, Thousand Oaks, New Delhi.

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Ferenčuhová, S., & Gentile, M. (2016). Introduction: Post-socialist cities and urban theory. Eurasian Geography and Economics, 57(4-5), 483-496.

Foucault, M. (1991). Discipline and Punish: The Birth of Prison. London, UK: Penguin.

Friedmann, J. (1988). Reviewing Two Centuries. Society, 26(1), pp.7-15.

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HRBEK Law. (2019). What is a Pre-Sale Agreement? Retrieved from

Hendler, S. (2015). Planning Ethics. In J. B. Holbrook (Ed.), Ethics, Science, Technology, and Engineering: A Global Resource (2nd ed., Vol. 3, 385-389). Farmington Hills, MI: Macmillan Reference USA.

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King, A.D. (2009). Postcolonial cities. International Encyclopedia of Human Geography, 321-326.

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O’Sullivan, A. (2012). Urban economics (8th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

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Saar, M., & Palang, H. (2009). The Dimensions of Place Meanings. Living Rev. Landscape Res.,(3). doi:10.12942/lrlr-2009-3

Stefanović, N., Josimović, B. & Hristić, N. D.  (2018). Models of Implementation of Spatial Plans: Theoretical Approach and Case Studies for Spatial Plans for the Special Purpose Area. In An Overview of Urban and Regional Planning, Intechopen, pp.59-81.

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