A city that sets benchmarks for other cities to emulate or appears as the site of emergent urban trends.
‘In many cases, the implementation outline and phasing schedule are major parts of a master plan, highlighting the timetable and phasing for the delivery of the site’s development. This will give the government and the community an indication of how development will be staged with infrastructure and services provision and will provide the reasoning for the chosen phasing order. The phasing of the development should be described, detailing which elements will be built first and which later, which decisions should be made early, and which should be allowed to evolve in response to future opportunities. The phasing should be planned around the potential to deliver infrastructure. It should also take into account any relocation of people, sale or rental of land, the property market, possible movement issues, land ownership patterns, funding availability, and relevant planning processes and legislation’ (World Bank, 2015).
Place vs Space
‘Jessop et al. (2008) claim that different approaches should be used simultaneously when investigating place – place should be viewed as specific location, as a wider territory, as consisting of networks and finally extending over different scales. Jauhiainen (2005) has similarly divided studies of urban space into four broad categories: space as materiality – space exists as a product of economic activity; space as distinctive character – space is seen as consisting of borders, the speciality of location is stressed; space as activity – the focus is given to socio-spatial relation in space; and space as contextuality – space exists only after it has been given a meaning through human consciousness as well as by the means of material resources.’ ... ‘Place for us is socially constructed and operating, including interaction between people and groups, institutionalized land uses, political and economic decisions, and the language of representation’ (Saar & Palang, 2009, pp.6-7).
‘Placemaking is a people-centred approach to the planning, design and management of public spaces. Put simply, it involves looking at, listening to, and asking questions of the people who live, work and play in a particular space, to discover needs and aspirations. This information is then used to create a common vision for that place. The vision can evolve quickly into an implementation strategy, beginning with small-scale, do-able improvements that can immediately bring benefits to public spaces and the people who use them’ (Placemaking Chicago, 2008).
‘The concept of evaluation comprehends every mental, cognitive, axiological and instrumental process of value assignment (whatever the type of value one is considering)’... ‘Evaluation measures specific aspects of the plan with the purpose of determining its value. It is the process used to measure how effective the plan is to achieve its goals and to enables decision-making based on the level of quality demonstrated’ (Amado & Cavaco, 2015, p. 29).
The generation of a plan through research (a systematic exploration of practices elsewhere) and creative design with appropriate methods and skills (Bayne, 1995).
‘“Implementation” is essentially more related to the spatial plans (comparing to “realization”, which only refers to actual physical functioning in the space) and the set of planning solutions that may include construction, policy and the strategy of behavior in space, as well as protection of space, the possibility of applying a rule, and so on, and it is therefore justifiable and necessary to use it for the purposes of spatial planning’ (Stefanović et al., 2018, p.60).
Planning balance sheet
‘Planning Balance Sheet establishes a framework of objectives and sub attributes and then scores and weights each item for each option. ... It shows the trade-offs between cost, performance and impact and can also be used for sensitivity testing’ (Greater Wellington Regional Council & Transit New Zealand, 2005, p.1).
‘Plot ratio is defined as the ratio between the gross floor area of a building and the area of the site on which it is erected (the Net Site Area).’ (Planning Department, 2018b, p.4)
One of the four planning traditions, in which planners ‘tend to think of themselves as technicians or technocrats (Political analyst), serving the existing centers of power—large private corporations and the state’...‘They believe that by using appropriate scientific theories and mathematical techniques (rationality), they can, at least in principle, identify and precisely calculate “best solutions”’(Friedmann, 1988, pp.12-13).
Political bargaining model
A decision-making model that involves long bargaining processes ‘to keep powerful political and economic players from abusing their control over the provision of structural services’ (Doron & Sened, 2001, p.14).
Post-socialist cities have a defining relation to the socialist past, representing a project of catching up, of reducing the imagined distance in both time and space with the Western cities (Ferenčuhová & Gentile, 2016).
Postcolonial cities refer to those cities that were previously colonized. Post-coloniality ‘may also imply a particular critique, one which not only emphasizes the distinctive impact which colonialism has had on the economy, society, culture, spatial form, and architecture of the city but also on the way the city itself is understood and represented’ (King, 2009, p.321).
Poverty ‘encompasses living conditions, an inability to meet basic needs because food, clean drinking water, proper sanitation, education, health care and other social services are inaccessible’ (Compassion International, n.d.).
‘Obtaining a pre-sale distribution agreement is one of the best ways of getting financing for the picture. This is an effective financing tool, because the foreign distribution agreement is a form of security for investors. The filmmaker is generally required, as a condition of the pre-sale agreement, to obtain a completion bond (an insurance policy covering the cost of completing the film if the filmmaker is unable to do so).’ (HRBEK Law, 2019)
Preponderance (majority) theory
‘The concept of price-to-income ratio is used to measure the affordability of homes in a certain area. When banks and financial institutions extent home loans, they consider the price-to-income ratio to assess how affordable it is to the home loan seeker. The price-to-income ratio is generally known as attainability. It is especially used to measure the long-term affordability of homes in a region. The price-to-income ratio is also a good parameter to judge the current affordability of homes in a region relative to how affordable it historically was. If the price-to-income ratio is going up, it means that homes are becoming less affordable. If the price-to-income ratio is declining, it means that homes are becoming more affordable.’ (Proptiger, 2015)
‘The largest municipality in each metropolitan or micropolitan statistical area.’ (O'Sullivan, 2012, p.3)
Public goods refer anything that rivals and is excludable in consumption. Since it is rivalry in consumption, it has finite availability, in which individual consumption will decrease the availability of the good to other consumers. Also, due to its excludability in consumption, it can only be used, or consumed, by one party at the same time. (Chen, 2019)
‘Planning is a vital part of the programme and project management process. A plan is basically the route-map through the programme or project from start to finish.’ (Department of Finance, n.d.)
Property cycle can be divided into 4 phases:
- Stable opportunity stage is ‘the opportunity phase is where prices are stable, leading many people to believe it’s a good time to invest. Those that understand the property cycle will also identify that this is the start of an upswing in the property market that will see prices rise. Because of this, it is widely deemed a bad time to sell.’
- The growth phase sees property values begin to increase slowly as vacancy rates fall and rent prices start to rise as investors see the potential in an area. This phase sees opportunities appear more clearly, but not as clearly as they will in the peak phase. Interest rates are usually low and it tends to be easier to get finance in the early stages of the growth phase. Value will usually start to grow in inner city suburbs and those near the beach. A ripple effect will then see growth expand to middle suburbs and finally to outer suburbs. The middle of the growth phase is often seen as an excellent time to invest as property is still relatively affordable, yet favourable returns are conceivable as the cycle advances into the peak phase.
- Peak phase is ‘usually the shortest and can often feel quite frantic as vendors push up demand and investors flood the market, competing to make the most of this rapid growth. Eventually the peak phase fizzles out as builders, developers, developers and home-owners flood the market with properties leading to an excess in supply.’
- ‘This results in what is known as the fall or slump phase. With too many investment properties on the market, vacancy rates increase, rental returns begin to decrease and prices stabilise (or even drop). This phase can be stressful for new investors who bought during the boom phase, only to struggle with repayments as investment returns decrease.’
(Optimal Property Group, 2019)
‘Pure public goods have two defining features. One is “non‐rivalry,” meaning that one person’s enjoyment of a good does not diminish the ability of other people to enjoy the same good. The other is “non‐excludability,” meaning that people cannot be prevented from enjoying the good’. (Kotchen, 2012, p.1)
Public-private partnership (PPP)
‘Public-private partnerships involve collaboration between a government agency and a private-sector company that can be used to finance, build, and operate projects, such as public transportation networks, parks, and convention centers. Financing a project through a public-private partnership can allow a project to be completed sooner or make it a possibility in the first place.’ (Kenton, 2019b)
Public rental housing
‘Public housing is a form of long-term rental social housing in Hong Kong and other markets.’ (HousingVic, 2018)
‘Property that is open to public use, including streets, sidewalks, parks, plazas, malls, cafes, interior courtyards, and so forth. It can be privately or publicly owned’ (Mitchell & Staeheli, 2009, p.511).
Public works programme
‘Public works programmes are a subset of social protection programmes, generally defined as public labour‐intensive infrastructure development initiatives which provide cash or food‐based payments. Such programmes have a number of potential technical and political attributes. They provide income transfers to the poor through employment and are often designed to smooth income particularly during ‘slack’ or ‘hungry’ periods of the year and they often build infrastructure, such as rural roads, irrigation, water harvest facilities, tree plantation, school and health clinic facilities.’ (Holmes & Jones, 2011, p.6)
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