In alphabetical order


‘Knowledge is constructed through social processes and that the institutions that generate knowledge will not necessarily ensure neutrality’ (Irwin, 1995. as cited in Rydin, 2007, p.52).


Knowledge claims
Knowledge claims are ‘claims to understand certain causal relationships which are open to contestation and recognition’ (Rydin, 2007, p.66).


Knowledge spillovers

‘The physical proximity (cluster) that facilitates exchange of knowledge between people, leading to new ideas.’ (O'Sullivan, 2012, p.61)

Reference List

Irwin, A. (1995). Citizen Science: A Study of People, Expertise and Sustainable Development. London, UK: Routledge.

O’Sullivan, A. (2012). Urban economics (8th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

Rydin, Y. (2007). Re-examining the role of knowledge within planning theory. Planning Theory. 6(1), 52-68. Retrieved from