In alphabetical order


Laboratory cities

The role of cities in innovation and production. Firms experiment with different production process until they find the ideal one. At that point, the firm will switch to mass production and start earning a profit. (O'Sullivan, 2012, p.76)


Ladder of citizen participation
‘Sherry Arnstein, writing in 1969 about citizen involvement in planning processes in the United States, described a “ladder of citizen participation” that showed participation ranging from high to low. The ladder is a guide to seeing who has power when important decisions are being made. It has survived for so long because people continue to confront processes that refuse to consider anything beyond the bottom rungs’ (The Citizen’s Handbook, n.d., para.1, see also Arnstein, 1969).


Land acquisition

‘The term 'land acquisition' means forcible acquisition of land from an unwilling seller and is distinct from a land purchase from a willing seller.’ (DownToEarth, 2015)


Land development

‘Land development refers to the conversion of land for the purpose of residential, commercial, industrial, or other activities.  Land development can be described by the type of land use in an area, as well as the characteristics of the development e.g. residential density.  Land development is an intermediate impact that results in a variety of other impacts on the physical environment which can potentially include the loss of sensitive habitats.  It is also associated with a demand for travel to and from the developed site, which in turn affects the transportation system.’ (Nilai Harta, 2015)


Land disposal units

‘The term ‘land disposal units’ is used to refer to land-based disposal facilities and includes landfills, surface impoundments, waste piles, land treatment units, injection wells, salt dome formations, salt bed formations, underground mines, and underground caves.’ (Rosenfield & Feng, 2011, p.161)


Land exchange

‘Development can also be permitted by means of a land exchange, whereby a land owner can surrender an existing land holding and be granted a new site, normally in site, to which modern conditions apply so that development will meet up-to-date planning requirements. Land exchanges also attract premium.’ (Legislative Council Secretariat, 1997, p.15)


Land suitability analysis

‘Land Suitability Analysis (LSA) is a GIS-based process applied to determine the suitability of a specific area for considered use, i. e. it reveals the suitability of an area regarding its intrinsic characteristics (suitable or unsuitable)’ (Jafari & Zaredar, 2010, p.441).


Land use compatibility

‘The characteristics of different uses or activities that permit them to be located near each other in harmony and without conflict. The designation of permitted and conditionally permitted uses in a zoning district is intended to achieve compatibility’ (The Institute for Local Government, 2010, p.13).


Land use distribution
The spatial distribution of land uses such as industrial, residential, commercial, institutional, recreational, transport and other related land uses.


Land use planning

‘Land use planning is a planning technique to improve the quality of life in urban areas. Areas are assigned specific activities based on various parameters which will help in increasing overall efficiency of the urban area. The major categories on the basis of activities include residential, commercial, transportation, public, and semi-public use, government offices, etc. This categorization is considered essential to keep a balance of different activities taking place in an area’ (Planning Tank, n.d.).


Land use zoning

‘Zoning is a planning control tool for regulating the built environment and creating functional real estate markets. It does so by dividing land that comprises the statutory area of a local authority into sections, permitting particular land uses on specific sites to shape the layout of towns and cities and enable various types of development. Zoning has a relatively short history as a tool for land-use planning. It determines the location, size, and use of buildings and decides the density of city blocks’ (World Bank, 2015)


Landscape and Visual Impact Assessment

Landscape and Visual Impact Assessment aims ‘to undertake detailed baseline review and impact assessment on the preferred location, identify key issues and potentially significant changes to the existing landscape and visual conditions that could result from … (buildings and facilities) construction and operation; and recommend mitigation measures in terms of reducing landscape and visual impacts’ (Environmental Protection Department, 2007).


Landscape architecture

Landscape architecture is ‘the profession that applies aesthetic and scientific principles to the design, planning, analysis and management of both natural and built environments’ (International Federation of Landscape Architects, 2012).

‘Landscape architecture is the design of outdoor areas, landmarks, and structures to achieve environmental, social-behavioural, or aesthetic outcomes.  It involves the systematic investigation of existing social, ecological, and soil conditions and processes in the landscape, and the design of interventions that will produce the desired outcome. The scope of the profession includes landscape design; site planning; stormwater management; erosion control; environmental restoration; parks and recreation planning; visual resource management; green infrastructure planning and provision; and private estate and residence landscape master planning and design; all at varying scales of design, planning and management’ (Salici, n.d., p.436).


Learning by doing
‘The acquisition of knowledge or skills through direct experience of carrying out a task’ (IGI Global, 2020, para.2).


Lease modification

‘A lease modification is a change in the scope of a lease, or the consideration for a lease, that was not part of its original terms and conditions.’ (KPMG, 2018, p.2)


‘Legibility is a key factor in visual communications for the built environment. If the messages on signs, displays, screens, interpretive graphics, or other environmental/experiential graphics are not readable, they are not effective’ (Society for Experiential Graphic Design, 2014, para.1).


Life-cycle assessment
‘Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) identifies, quantifies and evaluates the environmental impacts (inputs and outputs) of a product, service or activity, from cradle to grave. That is, the environmental impacts of all phases of the product's life are assessed, from the time materials are extracted through manufacture, transportation, storage, use, recovery, reuse and disposal’ (The Global Development Research Centre, n.d.).


Linked Exchange Rate System

‘The Linked Exchange Rate System was established in 1983. It is in essence a Currency Board system, which requires both the stock and the flow of the Monetary Base to be fully backed by foreign reserves. Any change in the size of the Monetary Base has to be fully matched by a corresponding change in the foreign reserves.’ (Hong Kong Monetary Authority, 2018)


Lived space
Lived space refers to people’s subjective spatial experiences including their social encounters and interactions in particular places. (Zhang, 2006, p. 222).



‘Loan-to-value (LTV) ratio is an assessment of lending risk which financial institutions and other lenders examine before approving a mortgage. Typically, assessments with high LTV ratios are higher risk and, therefore, if the mortgage is approved, the loan costs the borrower more. Additionally, a loan with a high LTV ratio may require the borrower to purchase mortgage insurance to offset the risk to the lender.’ (Hayes, 2019)


Local/Community economy
A market and networking system operating in a specific community to satisfy the community’s needs (El-Zeind, 2012). It is characterized by ‘local purchasing, local self-reliance, and local ownership of business’ (Poole & Shuman, 2014, p.518).


Localization economies

Agglomeration economies experienced within a particular industry. These localization economies generate clusters of firms producing same product. (O'Sullivan, 2012, p.60)


Location quotients

‘Location quotient (LQ) is a valuable way of quantifying how concentrated a particular industry, cluster, occupation, or demographic group is in a region as compared to the nation. It can reveal what makes a particular region “unique” in comparison to the national average.

In more exact terms, location quotient is a ratio that compares a region to a larger reference region according to some characteristic or asset. Suppose X is the amount of some asset in a region (e.g., manufacturing jobs), and Y is the total amount of assets of comparable types in the region (e.g., all jobs). X/Y is then the regional “concentration” of that asset in a region. If X’ and Y’ are similar data points for some larger reference region (like a state or nation), then the LQ or relative concentration of that asset in the region compared to the nation is (X/Y) / (X’/Y’)’ (Sentz, 2011, p.1).


Low carbon cities

A low carbon city is one that comprises ‘societies that consume sustainable green technology, green practices and emit relatively low carbon or GHG as compared with present day practice to avoid the adverse impacts on climate change’ (Kementerian Tenaga & Teknologi Hijau dan Air (KeTTHA), Malaysian Government, 2011, p.11).


Low carbon urbanism
According to Theodorson (1969), urbanism is a way of life. It is a study of cities – their geographical, economic, political, social and cultural environment, and the imprint of all these forces on the built environment. To take prompt action in responding to climate change, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have to be significantly reduced by changing the way humankind lives and inhabit cities (urbanized areas), how the cities are being planned, urbanized and managed, and how resources are circulated and consumed. Low carbon urbanism is one of the initiatives to address the challenges by adopting a low-carbon way of life and change how we approach urban development.

Reference List

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DownToEarth. (2015). All about the new land acquisition bill. Retrieved from–42035

El-Zeind, Charles. (2012). Defining Local Economies: Implications For Community Development And Social Capital. Sustainable Business Toolkit. Retrieved from

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Huxley, M. (2009). Planning, Urban. International Encyclopedia

Hayes, A. (2019). Loan-to-value Ratio – LTV Ratio. In Investopedia. Retrieved from

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KPMG. (2018). Lease modification: Accounting for changes to lease contracts. Retrieved from

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O’Sullivan, A. (2012). Urban economics (8th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

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Rosenfield, P.E. & Feng, L.G.H. (2011). Chapter 12: Current Practices in Hazardous Waste Treatment and Disposal. Risks of Hazardous Wastes, p.155-168.

Salici, A. (n.d.). The Use of Sustainability in Landscape Design. Sustainable Landscape Planning and Design, Peter Lang: Frankfurt am Main, Germany, pp.435-443.

Sentz, R. (2011). Understanding Location Quotient. Retrieved from

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Theodorson, G. (1969). A modern dictionary of sociology. New York: Crowell.

World Bank. (2015). Zoning and Land Use Planning. Retrieved from

Zhang, Z. (2006). What is lived space? Ephemera, Vol.6(2), pp.219-223.