The role of cities in innovation and production. Firms experiment with different production process until they find the ideal one. At that point, the firm will switch to mass production and start earning a profit. (O'Sullivan, 2012, p.76)
Ladder of citizen participation
‘The term 'land acquisition' means forcible acquisition of land from an unwilling seller and is distinct from a land purchase from a willing seller.’ (DownToEarth, 2015)
‘Land development refers to the conversion of land for the purpose of residential, commercial, industrial, or other activities. Land development can be described by the type of land use in an area, as well as the characteristics of the development e.g. residential density. Land development is an intermediate impact that results in a variety of other impacts on the physical environment which can potentially include the loss of sensitive habitats. It is also associated with a demand for travel to and from the developed site, which in turn affects the transportation system.’ (Nilai Harta, 2015)
Land disposal units
‘The term ‘land disposal units’ is used to refer to land-based disposal facilities and includes landfills, surface impoundments, waste piles, land treatment units, injection wells, salt dome formations, salt bed formations, underground mines, and underground caves.’ (Rosenfield & Feng, 2011, p.161)
‘Development can also be permitted by means of a land exchange, whereby a land owner can surrender an existing land holding and be granted a new site, normally in site, to which modern conditions apply so that development will meet up-to-date planning requirements. Land exchanges also attract premium.’ (Legislative Council Secretariat, 1997, p.15)
Land suitability analysis
‘Land Suitability Analysis (LSA) is a GIS-based process applied to determine the suitability of a specific area for considered use, i. e. it reveals the suitability of an area regarding its intrinsic characteristics (suitable or unsuitable)’ (Jafari & Zaredar, 2010, p.441).
Land use compatibility
‘The characteristics of different uses or activities that permit them to be located near each other in harmony and without conflict. The designation of permitted and conditionally permitted uses in a zoning district is intended to achieve compatibility’ (The Institute for Local Government, 2010, p.13).
Land use distribution
Land use planning
‘Land use planning is a planning technique to improve the quality of life in urban areas. Areas are assigned specific activities based on various parameters which will help in increasing overall efficiency of the urban area. The major categories on the basis of activities include residential, commercial, transportation, public, and semi-public use, government offices, etc. This categorization is considered essential to keep a balance of different activities taking place in an area’ (Planning Tank, n.d.).
Land use zoning
‘Zoning is a planning control tool for regulating the built environment and creating functional real estate markets. It does so by dividing land that comprises the statutory area of a local authority into sections, permitting particular land uses on specific sites to shape the layout of towns and cities and enable various types of development. Zoning has a relatively short history as a tool for land-use planning. It determines the location, size, and use of buildings and decides the density of city blocks’ (World Bank, 2015)
Landscape and Visual Impact Assessment
Landscape and Visual Impact Assessment aims ‘to undertake detailed baseline review and impact assessment on the preferred location, identify key issues and potentially significant changes to the existing landscape and visual conditions that could result from … (buildings and facilities) construction and operation; and recommend mitigation measures in terms of reducing landscape and visual impacts’ (Environmental Protection Department, 2007).
Landscape architecture is ‘the profession that applies aesthetic and scientific principles to the design, planning, analysis and management of both natural and built environments’ (International Federation of Landscape Architects, 2012).
‘Landscape architecture is the design of outdoor areas, landmarks, and structures to achieve environmental, social-behavioural, or aesthetic outcomes. It involves the systematic investigation of existing social, ecological, and soil conditions and processes in the landscape, and the design of interventions that will produce the desired outcome. The scope of the profession includes landscape design; site planning; stormwater management; erosion control; environmental restoration; parks and recreation planning; visual resource management; green infrastructure planning and provision; and private estate and residence landscape master planning and design; all at varying scales of design, planning and management’ (Salici, n.d., p.436).
Learning by doing
‘A lease modification is a change in the scope of a lease, or the consideration for a lease, that was not part of its original terms and conditions.’ (KPMG, 2018, p.2)
Linked Exchange Rate System
‘The Linked Exchange Rate System was established in 1983. It is in essence a Currency Board system, which requires both the stock and the flow of the Monetary Base to be fully backed by foreign reserves. Any change in the size of the Monetary Base has to be fully matched by a corresponding change in the foreign reserves.’ (Hong Kong Monetary Authority, 2018)
‘Loan-to-value (LTV) ratio is an assessment of lending risk which financial institutions and other lenders examine before approving a mortgage. Typically, assessments with high LTV ratios are higher risk and, therefore, if the mortgage is approved, the loan costs the borrower more. Additionally, a loan with a high LTV ratio may require the borrower to purchase mortgage insurance to offset the risk to the lender.’ (Hayes, 2019)
Agglomeration economies experienced within a particular industry. These localization economies generate clusters of firms producing same product. (O'Sullivan, 2012, p.60)
‘Location quotient (LQ) is a valuable way of quantifying how concentrated a particular industry, cluster, occupation, or demographic group is in a region as compared to the nation. It can reveal what makes a particular region “unique” in comparison to the national average.
In more exact terms, location quotient is a ratio that compares a region to a larger reference region according to some characteristic or asset. Suppose X is the amount of some asset in a region (e.g., manufacturing jobs), and Y is the total amount of assets of comparable types in the region (e.g., all jobs). X/Y is then the regional “concentration” of that asset in a region. If X’ and Y’ are similar data points for some larger reference region (like a state or nation), then the LQ or relative concentration of that asset in the region compared to the nation is (X/Y) / (X’/Y’)’ (Sentz, 2011, p.1).
Low carbon cities
A low carbon city is one that comprises ‘societies that consume sustainable green technology, green practices and emit relatively low carbon or GHG as compared with present day practice to avoid the adverse impacts on climate change’ (Kementerian Tenaga & Teknologi Hijau dan Air (KeTTHA), Malaysian Government, 2011, p.11).
Low carbon urbanism
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DownToEarth. (2015). All about the new land acquisition bill. Retrieved from https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/all-about-the-new-land-acquisition-bill–42035
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