by topics

Topic: Urban studies


Cities are multifaceted. The rapid growth of cities had to do with the industrial revolution in the 19th century, allowing people to congregate in urban areas (Frey and Zimmer, 2001, p.15). Cities are usually defined by their population size (which vary in different parts of the world); diversified economic functions (usually non-agricultural); and people’s ways of living (Ibid., 2001, pp.26-7). Definitions of cities vary with levels of development and city functions (ibid., 2001, p.31).


City Beautiful Movement

‘The City Beautiful Movement was inspired by the 1893 World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago, with the message that cities should aspire to aesthetic value for their residents’ (The New York Preservation Archive Project, 2016).


Community ‘relates to a form of social organization based upon some commonality between individuals, which results in them being defined as members of such a community and simultaneously demarcates others who are not members of the community’ (Flint, 2009, pp.354-355).


A key concept in economic geography and sources of competitiveness ‘have been identified in access to resources or markets, labor qualities, agglomeration economies, transactions costs, firm or commodity chain organization, social institutions, and government policy and spending’ (Lewis, 2009, p.226).


Created space
People have learned to tame nature and to transcend its many limitations, producing ‘created space’ (Saunders, 2001, p.36). The question is who has a right to shape such creation and use it.


Dystopia is the opposite of utopia (eu topos- a "good place", dis topos- a "bad place"), depicting imagined universe and fictional societies in which the living is bad and imperfect because of human misery, poverty, terror, corruption and oppression’ (Utopia and Dystopia, 2019).


Ebenezer Howard

‘Ebenezer Howard (1850-1928) is known for his publication Garden Cities of To-morrow (1898), the description of a utopian city in which man [sic] lives harmoniously together with the rest of nature and with one another through urban design and co-ownership of land. The publication led to the founding of the Garden city movement, that realized several Garden Cities in Great Britain at the beginning of the Twentieth Century’ (Planetizen, 2019).


Ecological footprint
‘A measure of how much biologically productive land and water area an individual, a city, a country, a region, or humanity requires to produce the resources it consumes and to absorb the waste it generates, using prevailing technology and resource management schemes’ (Holden, 2012, p.6).


‘Ecology is the study of the distribution and abundance of organisms, the interaction between organisms, the interaction between organisms and their environment, and structure and function of ecosystems’ (British Ecological Society, n.d.).


Economic growth

‘Economic growth is an increase in the production of economic goods and services, compared from one period of time to another. It can be measured in nominal or real (adjusted for inflation) terms. Traditionally, aggregate economic growth is measured in terms of gross national product (GNP) or gross domestic product (GDP), although alternative metrics are sometimes used’ (Investopedia, 2019a).


Economic space
1. ‘Ubiquitous global space of market relations’ (Friedmann, 2002). 2. ‘The commodification of place, where place is understood to be socially and economically valued land’ (Rodgers, 2009, p.40).


Exchange value
‘Individuals or groups seeking exchange value hope to generate some form of rent from real estate’ (Rodgers, 2009, p.41).


Garden city
A planned settlement, as conceived by Ebenezer Howard, with low housing density, and many parks, open spaces, and allotments; the maximum population size to be about 30 000 (Mayhew, 2015a). The land should be developed under ‘municipal ownership’ (Howard, 1989, pp.76-77).


A German term coined by Ferdinand Tönnies, meaning ‘community’. ‘Gemeinschaft is the world of close, emotional, face-to-face ties, attachment to place, ascribed social status, and a homogeneous and regulated community’ (Scott, 2014, p.40).



‘A process of neighbourhood transformation in which working-class and poor residents are displaced by an influx of middle-class residents’ (Hammel, 2009, p.360).


A German term coined by Ferdinand Tönnies, meaning ‘society’ or ‘association’. ‘Gesellschaft has come to be linked with urbanism, industrial life, mobility, heterogeneity, and impersonality.’ It is a condition in which people’s relationships are based on rationality and calculation (Scott, 2014, p.41).


Global cities

Cities that contain ‘large clusters of internationally orientated producer services firms’ (Derudder, 2009, p.262). Sassen's concept of the global city emphasises ‘the flow of information and capital. Cities are major nodes in the interconnected systems of information and money, and the wealth that they capture is intimately related to the specialized businesses that facilitate those flows—financial institutions, consulting firms, accounting firms, law firms, and media organizations. Sassen points out that these flows are no longer tightly bound to national boundaries and systems of regulation; so the dynamics of the global city are dramatically different than those of the great cities of the nineteenth century’ (Fainstein, 2005, pp.28-30).


‘Urban governance is primarily concerned with the processes through which government is organized and delivered in towns and cities and the relationships between state agencies and civil society (a term that is used to include citizens, communities, private sector actors, and voluntary organizations’ (Raco, 2009, p.622).


Government usually operates at multiple geographical scales. In general, local governments play ‘a key role in the delivery of welfare services such as education, housing, planning, and healthcare. In most cases, they were (and still are) run by elected councillors and their decisions had a significant impact on the everyday lives of local residents and businesses’ (Raco, 2009, p.625).


Growth machine
‘Coalitions of actors and organizations (i.e., growth machines), all sharing an interest in local growth and its effects on land values, compete with growth machines elsewhere for scarce mobile capital investment, while simultaneously attempting to gain the tacit support of local publics for such urban growth’ (Rodgers, 2009, p.40).


Industrial revolution

‘The transition from an agrarian economy to an economy based on the use of coal-fired machinery to manufacture an increasingly wide range of goods. The process began in Britain in the 18th century after the invention of the steam engine’. Since then, it has spread all over the world (Porta & Last, 2018).


Just city
It can be broadly defined in terms of 'democracy, equity, diversity, growth, and sustainability' (Fainstein, 2005, p.15).


Land use distribution
The spatial distribution of land uses such as industrial, residential, commercial, institutional, recreational, transport and other related land uses.


Lived space
Lived space refers to people’s subjective spatial experiences including their social encounters and interactions in particular places. (Zhang, 2006, p. 222).


Low carbon cities

A low carbon city is one that comprises ‘societies that consume sustainable green technology, green practices and emit relatively low carbon or GHG as compared with present day practice to avoid the adverse impacts on climate change’ (Kementerian Tenaga & Teknologi Hijau dan Air (KeTTHA), Malaysian Government, 2011, p.11).


‘A market is a place where two parties can gather to facilitate the exchange of goods and services. The parties involved are usually buyers and sellers. The market may be physical such as a retail outlet, where people meet face-to-face, or virtual such as an online market, where there is no direct physical contact between buyers and sellers’ (Investopedia, 2019b).



Neoliberalism is a short-hand term for the economisation of social life. It is distinguished by the decline of the welfare states, deregulation, entrepreneurialism and the advent of the individual initiative as a means of ensuring economic and social well-being (Larner, 2009).


New towns

‘New Towns are cities or towns that are designed from scratch and built in a short period of time. They are designed by professionals according to a Master Plan on a site where there was no city before. This distinguishes a New Town from a ‘normal’ city that gradually grows and evolves over time. Also, New Towns are mostly the result of a political (top-down) decision. The building of a new city ‘from scratch’ is a heroic enterprise that challenges the architect or planner to find the ideal shape for the urban program according to the state of the art planning ideas. A New Town is always a reflection of one moment in time and the ambitions of that moment’ (International New Town Institute, 2019).

‘Hong Kong has developed nine new towns since the initiation of its New Town Development Programme in 1973. The target at the commencement of the New Town Development Programme was to provide housing for about 1.8 million people in the first three new towns, namely, Tsuen Wan, Sha Tin and Tuen Mun.  (...) The first (Tsuen Wan, Sha Tin and Tuen Mun) started works in the early 1970s; then the second (Tai Po, Fanling/Sheung Shui and Yuen Long) in the late 1970s; and the third (Tseung Kwan O, Tin Shui Wai and Tung Chung) in the 1980s and 1990s. (...) All the new towns accommodate public and private housing supported by essential infrastructure and community facilities. External transport links were developed with all new towns now served by rail links to the urban area and road links to the adjacent districts. Further enhancement of road links is ongoing’ (Hong Kong: The Facts, 2016).


New urban politics
The rise of new urban politics has to do with ‘growing competition between cities in the search to tap into growth opportunities at varying spatial scales, linked with the rise in more entrepreneurial forms of city leadership such as public-private partnerships in driving strategies for urban development and regeneration’ (McNeill and While, 2001, p. 299).



‘Placemaking is a people-centred approach to the planning, design and management of public spaces. Put simply, it involves looking at, listening to, and asking questions of the people who live, work and play in a particular space, to discover needs and aspirations. This information is then used to create a common vision for that place. The vision can evolve quickly into an implementation strategy, beginning with small-scale, do-able improvements that can immediately bring benefits to public spaces and the people who use them’ (Placemaking Chicago, 2008).


In the early 1980s, under the influence of Marxist regulation theory, the term ‘Fordism’ was used to describe a ‘regime of accumulation’ ... in which mass production was linked to mass consumption. The widespread introduction of flexible specialization, small-batch production, niche consumption, just‐in‐time management strategies, and the popularity of monetarist ideologies among governments, is said to signal the introduction in the 1980s of ‘post‐Fordism’ (Burnham, 2018, p.3).



Poverty ‘encompasses living conditions, an inability to meet basic needs because food, clean drinking water, proper sanitation, education, health care and other social services are inaccessible’ (Compassion International, n.d.).


Private sector
‘The private sector is the part of the economy that is run by individuals and companies for profit and is not state controlled. Therefore, it encompasses all for-profit businesses that are not owned or operated by the government. Companies and corporations that are government run are part of what is known as the public sector, while charities and other nonprofit organizations are part of the voluntary sector’ (Investopedia, 2019d).


Public sector
‘Public sector, portion of the economy composed of all levels of government and government-controlled enterprises. It does not include private companies, voluntary organizations, and households. The general definition of the public sector includes government ownership or control rather than mere function and thereby includes, for example, the exercise of public authority or the implementation of public policy. When pictured as concentric circles, the core public service in central and subnational government agencies defines the inner circle of the public sector’ (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2019).


Public space

‘Property that is open to public use, including streets, sidewalks, parks, plazas, malls, cafes, interior courtyards, and so forth. It can be privately or publicly owned’ (Mitchell & Staeheli, 2009, p.511).


Reciprocity is giving with the expectation of receiving in the future. Members of social networks often promote, facilitate, and monitor reciprocity among themselves. Social networks foster reciprocity more than relationships outside any network. Because social networks provide greater outlets for “payback,” reciprocity is more likely. A perceived greater likelihood of being able to repay leads to increased acceptance of a gift (Fondren, 2011, pp.738-739).



A business strategy that involves ‘replacing old dilapidated buildings with modern, quality and environmentally-friendly schemes, enhancing the quality of the living environment through restructuring and re-planning of older districts’ and ‘providing appropriate community facilities and open space’ (Urban Renewal Authority, 2012).


The term redistribution refers to the criteria and the mechanisms shaping the allocation of valuable assets in a given society (Maldonado, 2011).


Rentier capitalism
A rentier is someone who obtains profit not by their productive power but simply because of their ownership of property or financial resources etc. Rentier capitalism often concentrates wealth in the hands of the few. Not only are people having no right to enjoy the value they have created collectively in the economy, their lack of property or finance also means that they have to rent property or borrow money from the rentiers (Gordon, 2019).


Right to the city
‘The exercise of a collective power to reshape the processes of urbanization’ after our hearts’ desire’ (Harvey, 2008, p.23).


Smart city

A smart city makes ‘use of software systems, server infrastructure, network infrastructure, and client devices’ … ‘to better connect seven critical city infrastructure components and services: city administration, education, healthcare, public safety, real estate, transportation, and utilities’ (Washburn and Sindhu, 2010).


Social institutions
‘A complex of positions, roles, norms and values lodged in particular types of social structures and organising relatively stable patterns of human activity with respect to fundamental problems in producing life-sustaining resources, in reproducing individuals, and in sustaining viable societal structures within a given environment’ (Turner, 1997, p.6, as cited in Miller, 2019).


Social justice
Social justice is socially reproduced, very often through the mode of production (how things are produced) in a particular society. Cities can be seen as ‘spaces of oppression and inequality but they are also spaces of political liberation’ and so the questions are: ‘what is being distributed, how it is distributed, and with what outcome’ (Newman, 2009, p.195).


Social polarization

‘Social polarization is the process of segregation within a society that may emerge from income inequality, economic restructuring, etc. and result in such differentiation that would consist of various social groups, from high-income to low-income. It is the process of growth of low-skilled service jobs at the same time of the expansion of elite of higher professionals’ (Surt Foundation, 2010).


Spatial justice

‘Spatial Justice is a term put forward by the critical urbanist Ed Soja in his book Seeking Spatial Justice. It calls for a reflection on urban space focused on the spatial nature of social interaction and the inequalities that are produced and reproduced through spatial relationships. In a way, seeking spatial Justice advocates for greater control over how spaces are produced. In the words of Ed Soja spatial justice “seeks to promote more progressive and participatory forms of democratic politics and social activism, and to provide new ideas about how to mobilise and maintain cohesive collations and regional confederations of grassroots social activist.” In a way, seeking spatial Justice is about people’s control over how urban space is imagined, planned/designed and lived. It is both a goal and a tool to be used in the process of design’ (100 Resilient Cities, 2004).


Sustainable cities

‘The city that while providing a high quality of life to a diversified and plural society in the present, establishes the mechanisms necessary to ensure suitable economic and social growth in the long term while maintaining the natural resources of the environment. This will allow future generations of citizens to satisfy their needs on the same terms’ ( Garca-Sãnchez & Prado-Lorenzo, 2010, p.2746).


There is no alternative (TINA)
‘"There is no alternative," often abbreviated as "TINA," is a phrase that originated with the Victorian philosopher Herbert Spencer and became a slogan of British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher in the 1980s. Today, it is often used by investors to explain a less-than-ideal portfolio allocation, usually of stocks, because other asset classes offer even worse returns. This situation, and the subsequent decisions of investors, can lead to the "Tina Effect" whereby stocks rise only because investors have no viable alternative’ (Investopedia, 2019c).


In medieval Europe, for example, there was a clear-cut boundary between urban and rural, usually in the form of a wall. Subsequently, towns have progressively overflowed their municipal boundaries (Mayhew, 2015b). ‘An urban area can be defined by one or more of the following: administrative criteria or political boundaries (e.g., area within the jurisdiction of a municipality or town committee), a threshold population size (where the minimum for an urban settlement is typically in the region of 2,000 people, although this varies globally between 200 and 50,000), population density, economic function (e.g., where a significant majority of the population is not primarily engaged in agriculture, or where there is surplus employment) or the presence of urban characteristics (e.g., paved streets, electric lighting, sewerage)’ (UNESCO, 2018, p.5).


Urban design

‘Encompassing the practices of architecture and planning, urban design is primarily concerned with place-making which has captured geographical imaginations’ (Street, 2009, p.32). Urban design is not a technical or value neutral process, but ‘is infused by ethical and moral standpoints about what the “good city” is or ought to be. The aesthetics of a place reveal much about social and political structure and process and, in turn, social and political structure and process are revealed, in part, through the form and texture of the built environment’ (Street, 2009, p.39).


Urban development
‘The social, cultural, economic and physical development of cities, as well as the underlying causes of these processes’ (Department of Sociology and Human Geography, University of Oslo, 2011, as cited in Baldwin & King, 2018).


Urban ecology
‘According to Sukopp & Wittig (1998), the term ‘Urban Ecology’ (in German Stadtökologie) can be defined in two ways. Within the natural sciences, urban ecology addresses biological patterns and associated environmental processes in urban areas, as a subdiscipline of biology and ecology. In this sense, urban ecology endeavours to analyse the relationships between plant and animal populations and their communities as well as their relationships to environmental factors including human influences. From this perspective, the research is unconstrained by anthropocentric evaluations. However the second, complementary, definition implies the anthropocentric perspective. Here, urban ecology is understood as a multidisciplinary approach to improving living conditions for the human population in cities, referring to the ecological functions of urban habitats or ecosystems for people – and thus including aspects of social, especially planning, sciences’ (Endlicher et al., 2007, pp.1-2).


Urban evolution
‘The concept of urban evolution was defined to facilitate an understanding of how urban ecosystems change over time and to enable systematic cross-site comparisons across local, regional, and global scales’ (Kaushal, McDowell & Wollheim, 2014, as cited in Kaushal al et., 2015, pp.40, 68).


Urban forms
‘The physical patterns, layouts, and structures that make up an urban center are collectively called the urban form’ (, 2019).


Urban planning

‘State-related policies and programs for neighborhood, local and metropolitan areas, aiming to: effect broad-scale allocation of land uses to areas; order boundaries between them; manage ongoing uses of land, the spatial aspects of economic and social activities and connections between them; and ensure the optimal functioning of urban economic processes and social interactions’ (Huxley, 2009, p.193).


Urban realm
‘“Urban realm” refers to the publicly accessible spaces between buildings in an urban environment. The urban realm encompasses: streets; squares; station entrances; laneways; and potentially other types of public space’ (PJA, 2018, p.1).


Urban regeneration

‘Comprehensive and integrated vision and action which seeks to resolve urban problems and bring about a lasting improvement in the economic, physical, social and environment condition of an area that been subject to change or offers opportunities for improvement’ (Roberts, 2017, p.18).


Urban revolutions
‘The processes by which agricultural village societies developed into socially, economically, and politically complex urban societies. The term urban revolution was introduced by the archaeologist V. Gordon Childe’ (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2020). This is considered the First Urban Revolution. The second Urban Revolution had much to do with the Industrial Revolution in England towards the end of the 18th century, made possible by agricultural advances, institutional changes, surplus capital from mercantilism and colonialism as well as the use of coal mines to power machine-based production.


Use value
‘Individuals or groups seeking use value, the same real estate might form the basis for everyday social life’ (Rodgers, 2009, p.41).


‘Originally conceived by More, is both a good, happy, or fortunate place (eutopia); and ‘no place’ (outopia). This dual meaning is suggestive of utopia as somewhere that is perfect, and also a place that does not exist and perhaps never can exist’ (Brown, 2009, p.125).


Rokeach (1968) defines a value as ‘an enduring belief that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence’… instrumental values (such as honesty, responsibility, and courage) and terminal values (such as freedom, equality, and inner harmony’ (Beatley, 1994, p. 18).


World City Ranking
A ranking of world cities which are ‘the command and control centers of the global economy, they are nodal points that function as organizing centers for the interdependent skein of material, financial, and cultural flows that together sustain contemporary globalization’ (Derudder, 2009, p.262).

Reference List

100 Resilient Cities. (2004). Teaching Spatial Justice. Retrieved from

Baldwin, C., & King, R. (2018). Social sustainability, climate resilience and community-based urban development: What about the people? New York: Routledge

Beatley, T. (1994), Ethical Land Use: Principles of Policy and Planning, Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press.

British Ecological Society. (n.d.). ‘What is ecology?’. Retrieved from

Brown, G. (2009). Utopian Cities. International Encyclopedia of Human Geography, pp.125-130.

Burnham, P. (2018). fordism. In A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations.: Oxford University Press, 63. Retrieved from

Compassion International. (n.d.). ‘What is Poverty?’. Retrieved from

Derudder, B. (2009). World/Global Cities. International Encyclopedia of Human Geography, p.262-268.

Encyclopedia Britannica. (2019). Public Sector [Electronic encyclopedia]. Retrieved from

Endlicher, W., Langner, M., Hesse, M., Mieg, H.A., Kowarik, I., Hostert, P., Kulke, E., Nutzmann, G., Schulz, M., Meer, E., Wessolek, G. & Wiegand, C. (2007). Urban Ecology – Definitions and Concepts. Shrinking Cities: Effects on Urban Ecology and Challenges for Urban Development.

Fainstein, S.S. (2005). Cities and Diversity: Should We Want It? Can We Plan for It? Urban Affairs Review, Vol. 41(1), pp.3-19.

Flint, J. (2009). Neighborhoods and Community. International Encyclopedia of Human Geography, p.354-359.

Fondren, W. (2011). Reciprocity. In G. A. Barnett (Ed.), Encyclopedia of social networks. Vol. (1), 738-739. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc. doi: 10.4135/9781412994170.n303

Friedmann, J. (2002). Life Space and Economic Space: Third World Planning in Perspective [Book cover]. Transaction Publishers, USA.

Fry, W.H. and Zimmer, Z. (2001). Defining the city. In In Paddison, R. (2001) (ed.). Handbook of Urban Studies, London, UK: Sage Publications, pp.14-35.

Garca-Sãnchez, Isabel-Marãa & Prado-Lorenzo, , Josã-Manuel. (2010).

Gordon, A.E. (2019). What is rentier capitalism. The Prindle Post, 12 March 2019, Retrieved from

Hammel, D.J. (2009). Gentrification. In International Encyclopedia of Human Geography, p.360-367.

Harvey, D. (2008). The Right to The City. New Left Review 53, p.23-40.

Holden, E. (2012). Ecological Footprint. In International Encyclopedia of Housing and Home, 6-11. Retrieved from

Howard, E. (1989) (Reprint). Garden Cities of Tomorrow. Attic Books.

Huxley, M. (2009). Planning, Urban. In International Encyclopedia of Human Geography, p.193-198.

International New Town Institute. (2019). What is a new town? Retrieved from

Investopedia. (2019a). Economic Growth. Retrieved from

Investopedia. (2019b). Market. Retrieved from

Investopedia. (2019c). TINA: There Is No Alternative. Retrieved from

Investopedia. (2019d). Private Sector. Retrieved from

Kaushal, S., Mcdowell, W., Wollheim, W., Newcomer Johnson, T., Mayer, P., Belt, K., & Pennino, M. (2015). Urban Evolution: The Role of Water. Water, 7(8), pp.4063-4087. Retrieved from

Kementerian Tenaga & Teknologi Hijau dan Air (KeTTHA), Malaysian Government. (2011). Low Carbon Cities Defined. Low Carbon Cities – Framework and Assessment System. 11-13. Retrieved from

Larner, W. (2009). Neoliberalism. International Encyclopedia of Human Geography, 374-378.

Lewis, N. (2009). Competitiveness. International Encyclopedia of Human Geography, p.226-233.

Maldonado, M. A. (2011). Redistribution. In B. Badie, D. Berg-Schlosser, & L. Morlino (Eds.), International Encyclopedia of Political Science (Vol. 7, pp. 2223-2226). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Reference. Retrieved from

Mayhew, S. (2015a). Garden city. In A Dictionary of Geography: Oxford University Press. Retrieved from

Mayhew, S. (2015b). urban. In A Dictionary of Geography: Oxford University Press,. Retrieved 8 Jul. 2019, from

McNeill, D. and While, A. (2001). The new urban economies. In Paddison, R. (2001) (ed.). Handbook of Urban Studies, London, UK: Sage Publications, pp.296-307.

Mitchell, D. & Staeheli, L. A. (2009). Public space. International Encyclopaedia of Human Geography, p.511-516.

New Towns, New Development Areas and Urban Developments (2016). Hong Kong: The Facts. New Towns, New Development Areas and Urban Developments. Retrieved from

Newman, K. (2009). Social Justice, Urban. International Encyclopedia of Human Geography, pp.195-198.

PJA (2018). Urban realm valuation in the UK. Cycling and Walking Innovations Conference December 2018. Retrieved from:

Placemaking Chicago. (2008). What is placemaking? Retrieved from

Planetizen. (2019). Ebenezer Howard. Retrieved from

Porta, M., & Last, J. (2018). Industrial Revolution. A Dictionary of Public Health, Oxford University Press: Oxford and New York. Retrieved from

Raco, M. (2009). Governance, Urban. International Encyclopedia of Human Geography, pp.622-627.

Roberts, P. (2017). The Evolution, Definition and Purpose of Urban Regeneration. In Urban Regeneration, SAGE: Los Angeles and Melbourne, pp.9-36.

Rodgers, S. (2009). Urban Growth Machine. International Encyclopedia of Human Geography, p.40-45.

Rokeach, M. (1968). A theory of organization and change within value-attitude systems. Journal of Social Issues, Vol.XXIV, No.1, Jan. 1968, pp.13-33.

Saunders, P. (2001). Urban ecology. In Paddison, R. (2001) (ed.). Handbook of Urban Studies, London, UK: Sage Publications, pp.36-51.

Street, E. (2009). Urban Design. In International Encyclopedia of Human Geography, Elsevier: Tokyo and Amsterdam, pp.32-39. (2019). What is Urban Form? – Definition & History. Retrieved from

Surt Foundation. (2010). Key term definition: Social polarisation. Retrieved from

‘Sustainable Cities’ in Warf, B. (2010) Encyclopedia of Geography (Vol.6), Sage Publications, pp.2746-2747.

The New York Preservation Archive Project (2016). City Beautiful Movement. Retrieved from

Turner, Jonathan (1997). The Institutional Order, New York: Longman, pp.6. As cited in Miller, Seumas (2019). ‘Social Institutions’. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2019 Edition). Edward N. Zalta (ed.). Retrieved from

Urban Renewal Authority, Hong Kong Government. (2012). A Mission of 4 Rs. Retrieved from

Utopia and Dystopia. (2019). Dystopia Definition – Meaning and Concepts of Dystopia. Retrieved from

Washburn, D. and Sindhu, U. (2010). Helping CIOs understand ‘smart city’ initiative, Forrester Research. Retrieved from:

Zhang, Z. (2006). What is lived space? Ephemera, Vol.6(2), pp.219-223.